Online dating study shows too many choices can lead to dissatisfaction

June 14, 2017 by Käri Knutson
Online dating study shows too many choices can lead to dissatisfaction
Too many choices may not be good when it comes to online dating, a new study says. Credit: University of Wisconsin-Madison

Could there be too many fish in the sea? When it comes to online dating, that might be the case, according to researchers at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Jonathan D'Angelo, doctoral candidate in Communication Science, and Catalina Toma, assistant professor in the Department of Communication Arts, recently had their findings published in the print edition of Media Psychology.

"Online dating is very popular but the sheer popularity of it is creating some issues," Toma says. "Sifting through choices is potentially problematic in that it can create the perception that the grass is always greener."

Toma and D'Angelo conducted an experiment with 152 undergraduate students to find out how the number of choices online daters are given, and whether these choices are reversible, affects romantic outcomes. What they found was that a week after making their selection, online daters who chose from a large set of potential partners (i.e., 24) were less satisfied with their than those who selected from a small set (i.e., 6), and were more likely to change their selection. Those who selected from a large pool and had the ability to reverse their choice were the least satisfied with their selected partner after one week.

"There can be more regret when they know there are other options," D'Angelo says.

It's a bit of choice overload, a theory economists use when talking about buying products such as chocolate or pens. With relationships, the stakes – and the potential regret – are higher.

Researchers point to the role of counterfactual thinking: Having more choices allows people to generate counterfactuals, or evaluative thoughts about the merits of the discarded alternatives (i.e., "what might have been"), which, in turn, lower satisfaction.

And that's when people head back online.

"When the cost of the investment of meeting someone is really low and there are tons of options you'll explore those options," Toma says.

Unlike objects such as pens and chocolates, their study shows, online dating is an experience, and one that unfolds over time. With pens or chocolates, one gets to sample them immediately after selecting them. With online dating, it takes time to actually experience the date. That gives time to think about whether that other grass might be greener.

So more isn't always better. But both Toma and D'Angelo still say the benefits of online dating outweigh the drawbacks.

"You can meet people who are similar to you like you never could before," D'Angelo says. "This research suggests that even though you're meeting people who are potentially similar, there can be downside to having that much access."

Studies continue to show that more and more long-term relationships start online – and the stigma that once existed against online dating has diminished. If you're shy or have limited time, online dating can be a great option. Or if you'd like to find out if your potential date is a smoker or has kids before you actually go out on a date.

Toma started researching online dating in 2004. The landscape has changed greatly, Toma says, with the emergence of many niche dating site as well as mobile dating apps.

While the technology may keep changing, one thing won't.

"Our human need for connection is fundamental," Toma says. "I don't think will decrease or diminish anytime soon."

Explore further: What to know about online dating sites

Related Stories

What to know about online dating sites

April 20, 2017
(HealthDay)—If you're looking for love, chances are you'll at least consider—if not turn to—online dating sites. But how can you make a successful romantic computer connection?

Lovelorn liars leave linguistic leads

February 13, 2012
Online daters intent on fudging their personal information have a big advantage: most people are terrible at identifying a liar. But new research is turning the tables on deceivers using their own words.

Online daters ignore wish list when choosing a match

February 21, 2017
Despite having a very clear 'wish list' stating their preference for potential ideal matches, most online daters contact people bearing no resemblance to the characteristics they say they want in a mate, according to QUT ...

Online dating booming but how much does education matter?

January 3, 2017
Online daters are most likely to contact people with the same level of education as them, but are less fussy about an intellectual match as they get older, according to QUT research.

Recommended for you

Itsy bitsy spider: Fear of spiders and snakes is deeply embedded in us

October 19, 2017
Snakes and spiders evoke fear and disgust in many people, even in developed countries where hardly anybody comes into contact with them. Until now, there has been debate about whether this aversion is innate or learnt. Scientists ...

Inflamed support cells appear to contribute to some kinds of autism

October 18, 2017
Modeling the interplay between neurons and astrocytes derived from children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues in Brazil, say innate ...

Study suggests psychedelic drugs could reduce criminal behavior

October 18, 2017
Classic psychedelics such as psilocybin (often called magic mushrooms), LSD and mescaline (found in peyote) are associated with a decreased likelihood of antisocial criminal behavior, according to new research from investigators ...

Taking probiotics may reduce postnatal depression

October 18, 2017
Researchers from the University of Auckland and Otago have found evidence that a probiotic given in pregnancy can help prevent or treat symptoms of postnatal depression and anxiety.

Schizophrenia disrupts the brain's entire communication system, researchers say

October 17, 2017
Some 40 years since CT scans first revealed abnormalities in the brains of schizophrenia patients, international scientists say the disorder is a systemic disruption to the brain's entire communication system.

Before assigning responsibility, our minds simulate alternative outcomes, study shows

October 17, 2017
How do people assign a cause to events they witness? Some philosophers have suggested that people determine responsibility for a particular outcome by imagining what would have happened if a suspected cause had not intervened.

2 comments

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (1) Jun 14, 2017
Well, "analysis paralysis" in not an entirely new idea in psychology (neither is the 'paradox of choice' or 'overchoice' which have been written about since the 1970s in all settings from food preferences to shopping to economic decision making). So it's not surprising that this should also apply to any other field where choices are available.

"Studies continue to show that more and more long-term relationships start online – and the stigma that once existed against online dating has diminished."

Well...since the falling in love happens in real life settings in any case I can't find an argument why lines of text, as a first contact, should be inferior to screaming at each other over loud music in a disco.
nrauhauser
not rated yet Jun 14, 2017
I got divorced around the turn of the century. I've had three relationships lasting about three years each, all due to online dating, and others of shorter duration. Both of my real life only contacts were physically attractive, but terribly flawed. Online first permits exploration before the investment of that first date.

The study was done with twenty somethings, who have boundless energy/optimism, and little life experience with adversity. I bet a study done with those of us 35 - 55 would find different results.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.