Mitochondria may metabolize ADP differently in aging muscle, despite exercise resistance

March 13, 2018, Cell Press
Mitochondria. Credit: Wikipedia commons

Most adults reach their peak levels of muscle mass in their late 30s or early 40s. Even for those who exercise regularly, strength and function start to decline after that point. For those who don't exercise, the drops can be dramatic. Now, a study of twenty men published March 13 in the journal Cell Reports provides new clues about the cellular mechanisms of aging muscles, showing a key role for how mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell, process ADP, which provides energy to cells.

ADP, or adenosine diphosphate, plays a role in how our cells release and store energy. But previous lab models that have looked at the mechanisms of aging in human have not included ADP. When ADP is metabolized in the mitochondria, it stimulates cellular respiration and decreases reactive oxidative species (ROS; also known as free radicals). Higher ROS levels are linked to damage in different components of the cell, a process also called oxidative stress.

In the study, the investigators developed an in vitro system employing individual muscle fibers taken from muscle biopsies. The fibers were put into a system in which mitochondrial function and respiration could be measured across a range of ADP concentrations that are relevant to those found in the human body. "The way people normally measure ROS is in a system that has ADP removed," says senior author Graham Holloway, an associate professor at the University of Guelph in Ontario. "But biologically, we always have ADP in the system. We started to think that maybe how we get ADP into the mitochondria is important for aging."

In the first part of the paper, the researchers compared muscle from ten healthy men in their 20s with muscle from ten healthy men in their early 70s. They found that there was an 8- to 10-fold decrease in ADP sensitivity, and therefore, when ADP was added to the system, there was a 2- to 3-fold higher rate of ROS emission in the muscle taken from the . ROS levels were determined by measuring emissions of hydrogen peroxide, a byproduct of activity in the cell.

The findings suggested that mitochondrial ADP sensitivity was somehow impaired in the muscles of the older men and that increased levels of ROS were contributing to sarcopenia, or the degenerative loss of . "The magnitude of change was quite striking to us," Holloway explains. "For humans, it's remarkable to have such a big difference."

In the second part, the older men undertook a program of supervised resistance training, which included leg presses and upper-body exercises. But, after 12 weeks, there were no changes in the levels of emitted, suggesting no improvements in age-associated cellular stress.

"This doesn't mean there's no hope for building strength in aging ," Holloway says. "I actually think that endurance training would be potentially beneficial, because we know with that kind of training you get increases in mitochondrial content." Endurance training includes aerobic exercise like cycling and swimming. "Moving forward, we plan to look at other types of exercise, to see if it can improve the dynamic response of mitochondria to ADP," he adds.

Other future work will use rodent models to delve into the cause-and-effect relationships of the molecular mechanisms of ADP metabolism. The investigators also plan to extend their studies to looking at different types of exercise in aging women. Early research in healthy young people has indicated that there are differences in sensitivity to ADP between men and women.

Explore further: Scientists find power switch for muscles

More information: Cell Reports, Holloway et al. "Age-associated impairments in mitochondrial ADP sensitivity contribute to redox stress in senescent human skeletal muscle." , DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.02.069

Related Stories

Scientists find power switch for muscles

March 6, 2018
If you've ever wondered how strenuous exercise translates into better endurance, researchers at the Salk Institute may have your answer. In a study published in the journal Cell Reports on March 6, 2018, scientists in Ronald ...

How exercise—interval training in particular—helps your mitochondria stave off old age

March 7, 2017
It's oft-repeated but true: exercise keeps you healthy. It boosts your immune system, keeps the mind sharp, helps you sleep, maintains your muscle tone, and extends your healthy lifespan. Researchers have long suspected that ...

Calorie reduction + exercise = better muscle function in older adults

August 29, 2017
Improved muscle performance starts with better mitochondrial function. Older adults who are overweight may improve their muscle function with a weight loss program that combines exercise and calorie reduction, according to ...

Exercise: the cellular 'fountain of youth'

March 28, 2017
(HealthDay)—High-intensity exercise may help older adults reverse certain aspects of the "cellular" aging process, a new study suggests.

Exercise can make cells healthier, promoting longer life, study finds

September 22, 2017
Whether it's running, walking, cycling, swimming or rowing, it's been well-known since ancient times that doing some form of aerobic exercise is essential to good health and well-being. You can lose weight, sleep better, ...

Longevity and human health may be linked to a muscle cell enzyme

June 24, 2016
Exercise and fasting do not change the location of a key enzyme involved in energy production, a study in Experimental Physiology found.

Recommended for you

Gradual release of immunotherapy at site of tumor surgery prevents tumors from returning

March 21, 2018
A new study by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists suggests it may be possible to prevent tumors from recurring and to eradicate metastatic growths by implanting a gel containing immunotherapy during surgical removal ...

Cold can activate body's 'good' fat at a cellular level, study finds

March 21, 2018
Lower temperatures can activate the body's 'good' fat formation at a cellular level, a new study led by academics at The University of Nottingham has found.

Immune cells in the retina can spontaneously regenerate

March 21, 2018
Immune cells called microglia can completely repopulate themselves in the retina after being nearly eliminated, according to a new study in mice from scientists at the National Eye Institute (NEI). The cells also re-establish ...

Switch discovered to convert blood vessels to blood stem cells in embryonic development

March 20, 2018
A switch has been discovered that instructs blood vessel cells to become blood stem cells during embryonic development in mice. Using single-cell technology, researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute in Cambridge and ...

Stem cells treat macular degeneration

March 19, 2018
In July 2015, 86-year-old Douglas Waters developed severe age-related macular degeneration (AMD). He struggled to see things clearly, even when up close.

Don't blame adolescent social behavior on hormones

March 19, 2018
Reproductive hormones that develop during puberty are not responsible for changes in social behavior that occur during adolescence, according to the results of a newly published study by a University at Buffalo researcher.


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.