Scientists develop new tool to study nicotine receptors

March 27, 2018 by Anna Williams, Northwestern University
Nicotine, alternate molecular skeletal 2D rendering showing the 3D conformation of its ring at lowest energy in actual space. Credit: Public Domain

A team of scientists has developed a new technique to better understand the effects of nicotine on the brain. In a study published in Nature Methods, the investigators described the creation of a novel light-activated nicotine compound, which will allow scientists to better study receptors that play a key role in nicotine addiction.

"Investigators are now able to study the neurotransmitter receptor for nicotine in ways not previously possible," said co-corresponding author Ryan M. Drenan, PhD, associate professor of Pharmacology. "Scientists interested in studying nicotine dependence or acetylcholine—the neurotransmitter that normally binds to 'nicotine receptors'—now have a fantastic tool that, when properly employed, may enable us to uncover fundamental principles of cholinergic transmission."

Matthew C. Arvin, PharmD, a graduate student in Drenan's laboratory, was a co-first author of the study, which was conducted in collaboration with investigators at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Janelia Research Campus.

Photoactivatable versions of drugs, which can be activated by brief flashes of light, are an important tool used in pharmacological research to study processes in cells and to model behavior. Until recently, however, scientists lacked the ability to develop compounds for many  drugs, including a class with a so-called "tertiary nitrogen," which includes nicotine.

Credit: Northwestern University

In the current study, the team of scientists developed a new chemical method for preparing derivatives of such previously "uncageable" drugs—and applied the strategy to nicotine. After developing a photoactivatable nicotine, called PA-Nic, they utilized the compound to study .

"We used the probe to reveal new details about how chronic nicotine exposure changes the activity and location of these receptors, paving the way for a new approach to studying dependence," Drenan said.

The new strategy will be essential for studies of acetylcholine transmission and , but the approach could also be applied to other drugs that have a tertiary nitrogen, according to the authors. For example, the study demonstrates the creation of photoactivatable versions of the opioid fentanyl and the antidepressant escitalopram, among others.

"This could lead to novel research in many aspects of neurobiology that impact human health, including mood disorders or the opioid epidemic," Drenan said.

Explore further: Running away from addiction: How exercise aids smoking cessation

More information: Sambashiva Banala et al. Photoactivatable drugs for nicotinic optopharmacology, Nature Methods (2018). DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.4637

Related Stories

Running away from addiction: How exercise aids smoking cessation

December 20, 2017
New research in mice sheds light on the mechanism underlining exercise's protective effect against nicotine dependence and withdrawal.

Tiny worms may offer new clues about why it's so hard to quit smoking

November 7, 2017
Researchers at the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute found that a previously dismissed genetic mechanism may contribute to nicotine dependence, and to the withdrawal effects that can make quitting smoking so ...

New discoveries on the connection between nicotine and type 2 diabetes

March 8, 2016
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have made two new discoveries with regard to the beta cells' ability to release insulin. The findings can also provide a possible explanation as to why smokers have an increased risk ...

Nicotine vaccine delays the drug's effects in mice

March 9, 2016
Many people who smoke want to quit, but the urge to light up is often irresistible. An effective vaccine to help people kick the habit once and for all has been elusive. But now, scientists report in ACS' Journal of Medicinal ...

Nicotine withdrawal traced to very specific group of brain cells

November 14, 2013
Nicotine withdrawal might take over your body, but it doesn't take over your brain. The symptoms of nicotine withdrawal are driven by a very specific group of neurons within a very specific brain region, according to a report ...

Recommended for you

A Trojan Horse delivery for treating a rare, potentially deadly, blood-clotting disorder

September 21, 2018
In proof-of-concept experiments, University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers have highlighted a potential therapy for a rare but potentially deadly blood-clotting disorder, TTP. The researchers deliver this therapeutic ...

Japanese team creates human oogonia using human stem cells in artificial mouse ovaries

September 21, 2018
A team of researchers with members from several institutions in Japan has successfully generated human oogonia inside of artificial mouse ovaries using human stem cells. In their paper published in the journal Science, the ...

A new approach to developing a vaccine against vivax malaria

September 21, 2018
A novel study reports an innovative approach for developing a vaccine against Plasmodium vivax, the most prevalent human malaria parasite outside sub-Saharan Africa. The study led by Hernando A. del Portillo and Carmen Fernandez-Becerra, ...

Researchers explore how changes in diet alter microbiome in artificial intestine

September 21, 2018
Using an artificial intestine they created, researchers have shown that the microbiome can quickly adapt from the bacterial equivalent of a typical western diet to one composed exclusively of dietary fats. That adaptation ...

Study identifies stem cell that gives rise to new bone and cartilage in humans

September 20, 2018
A decade-long effort led by Stanford University School of Medicine scientists has been rewarded with the identification of the human skeletal stem cell.

Scientists grow human esophagus in lab

September 20, 2018
Scientists working to bioengineer the entire human gastrointestinal system in a laboratory now report using pluripotent stem cells to grow human esophageal organoids.


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.