Building tolerance to anxiety is key to OCD symptom relief

March 22, 2018 by Leigh Hopper, University of California, Los Angeles
For people who obsessively wash their hands, Dr. Jamie Feusner would suggest imagining a worst-case scenario to learn to tolerate the feelings they experience. Credit: Sarah Laval/Flickr

Excessive hand washing, out of a fear of contamination or germs, is one of the most common and best-known examples of obsessive-compulsive disorder, or OCD. Though OCD can't be "cured," symptoms can be significantly reduced through cognitive-behavioral therapy, a type of psychotherapy.

Cognitive-behavioral , or CBT, can be challenging for some people with OCD. Therapists may expose them to experiences that require them to directly confront their fears by performing tasks that cause anxiety or even disgust. For example, one effective treatment for excessive fears of contamination might involve putting your hands on the floor of a public restroom.

"We want you to learn that you're able to tolerate it," said Dr. Jamie Feusner, a clinical neuroscientist at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA. "We first brainstorm situations that evoke anxiety, and rank them. We might say, 'Let's start with touching a wall in a public hallway.'"

Feusner and Nicco Reggente, a UCLA Ph.D. candidate, recently published a study showing that by feeding into an , they could predict which people with OCD might benefit most from . One aim of the study was to figure out who could be spared the expense—and stress—of therapy that was unlikely to work for them.

"Exposure and response prevention" is the name for the technique used in cognitive-behavioral therapy for OCD. "Exposure" refers to a specific exercise, or assignment, that intentionally evokes anxiety, disgust or other distressing emotions in patients. This helps them learn how to better endure or tolerate those feelings, which, additionally, often decrease in intensity over time and with repetition. "Response prevention" refers to reducing and eventually eliminating compulsive behaviors, such as repeated .

In a typical counseling session, Feusner might ask a person to hold the office doorknob for a few moments. He'll check in and ask how she or he is feeling. The person might say, "I'm thinking that doorknob looks pretty clean," or "I know I can wash my hands when the appointment is over."

Feusner doesn't want them to talk themselves out of their anxiety. So he might say, "Actually, I've seen a lot of really sick patients today using that doorknob." He wants them to imagine a worst-case scenario, experience their feelings without trying to get rid of them, and understand that they can tolerate it.

Much of the session is spent in silence; chatting is a distraction. After a bit of time—a few minutes up to a half hour—the person with OCD often realizes she or he doesn't feel as anxious. At the end of the session, Feusner assigns "homework," such as resisting the urge to wash their hands the rest of the day.

The restroom floor exercise, for example, enables the patient to "generalize" an extreme experience, and apply what they have learned to situations that are more typical, since even people without OCD do not usually like to touch a bathroom floor. Such a challenging exposure that goes above and beyond makes a lot of other situations seem easier; touching a door knob suddenly becomes a minor problem, said Feusner, who is also a professor-in-residence of psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences in the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.

For people with OCD, UCLA offers an intensive cognitive-behavioral therapy program, with a compressed schedule of five days a week for six weeks.

"Most of the people I see have been suffering a decade or more," Feusner said. "So people are motivated to do what it takes."

Their recent study, in which they were able to predict which people with OCD might benefit most from cognitive-behavioral therapy, could take a lot of the guesswork about what treatments a person should try, Feusner said.

"It would be ideal to develop similar means of predicting if people will respond to medications or brain stimulation approaches," Feusner said, "since these can also be effective."

Explore further: Brain scan and artificial intelligence could predict whether OCD will improve with treatment

Related Stories

Brain scan and artificial intelligence could predict whether OCD will improve with treatment

February 14, 2018
Washing hands needlessly dozens of times of day. Spending so much time perfecting schoolwork that it never gets turned in.

Brain study may lead to more precise treatments for OCD

June 24, 2015
Tens of millions of Americans—an estimated 1 to 2 percent of the population—will suffer at some point in their lifetimes from obsessive-compulsive disorder, a disorder characterized by recurrent, intrusive, and disturbing ...

Behavioral therapy increases connectivity in brains of people with OCD

September 19, 2017
UCLA researchers report that people with obsessive-compulsive disorder, when treated with a special form of talk therapy, demonstrate distinct changes in their brains as well as improvement in their symptoms.

Psychotherapy normalizes the brain in social phobia

February 6, 2017
Anxiety in social situations is not a rare problem: Around one in ten people are affected by social anxiety disorder during their lifetime. Social anxiety disorder is diagnosed if fears and anxiety in social situations significantly ...

Exploring the neuroscience of behavioral therapy in rats

January 15, 2018
Psychotherapy may improve symptoms of psychiatric disorders by increasing activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, suggests a study of rats exposed to chronic stress. The research, published in JNeurosci, is a step toward ...

Severe anxiety best treated with drugs and therapy

October 3, 2017
Children and teens with severe anxiety need both behavioral therapy and medication for the best chance of improvement, a new Yale-led analysis has found.

Recommended for you

Unprecedented study identifies 44 genetic risk factors for major depression

April 26, 2018
A global research project has mapped out the genetic basis of major depression, identifying 44 genetic variants which are risk factors for depression, 30 of which are newly discovered. The study, by the Psychiatric Genomics ...

Three-minute version of brain stimulation therapy effective for hard-to-treat depression

April 26, 2018
In the largest study of its kind, a three-minute version of a brain stimulation treatment was shown to be just as effective as the standard 37-minute version for hard-to-treat depression.

Millennial men value altruism and self-care above traditional male qualities

April 25, 2018
Contrary to popular stereotypes, young men today are likely to be selfless, socially engaged and health-conscious, according to a new study from the University of British Columbia and Intensions Consulting, a Vancouver-based ...

Indications of psychosis appear in cortical folding

April 25, 2018
Imaging techniques can be used to detect the development of psychosis in the brains of high-risk patients at an early stage, as reported by researchers from the University of Basel and Western University in the journal JAMA ...

Maternal binge drinking linked to mood problems and alcohol abuse in offspring

April 25, 2018
Binge drinking by pregnant and lactating mothers can impair the mental health of their offspring, reports a study published today in Frontiers in Psychiatry. In a rat model, Italian researchers find that while habitual drinking ...

Engaging in physical activity decreases people's chance of developing depression

April 24, 2018
An international team including researchers from King's College London have found physical activity can protect against the emergence of depression, regardless of age and geographical region.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.