Not all saturated fats are equal when it comes to heart health

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The type of saturated fats we eat can affect our risk of a heart attack, according to a study published in the International Journal of Cardiology. People whose diets contain relatively little palmitic and stearic acid—saturated fats composed of 16 or more carbon atoms (longer-chain saturated fats) that are typically found in meats—and eat plant-based proteins instead have decreased chances of myocardial infarction. Moreover, individuals who eat more saturated fats with 14 or fewer carbon atoms (shorter-chain saturated fats) that are typically found in dairy products have lower risk of myocardial infarction.

"Our analysis of the diets of large groups of individuals in two countries over time shows that the type of saturated fats we consume could affect our cardiovascular heath," explained lead investigator Ivonne Sluijs, Ph.D., Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

The study investigated whether saturated fats with chains varying in length from 4 to 18 carbon atoms are associated with the risk of developing a myocardial infarction. Data from approximately 75,000 people in the UK and Denmark were analyzed. Of these two groups, nearly 3,500 people experienced myocardial infarction in the period between the study's initial outreach and follow-up 13 years later (in Denmark) and 18 years later (in the UK).

"We found that eating relatively little of the longer chained saturated fatty acids and consuming plant-based proteins instead was associated with a lowered risk. Substitution of those saturated fats with other energy sources such as carbohydrates did not affect the risk to develop myocardial infarction," said Dr. Sluijs. Although diets vary by nationality and other factors, the most frequently consumed is , with 16 carbon atoms, followed by stearic acid, with 18 , both of which are found in meat products. Consumption of saturated fats that have shorter carbon atom chains and are present in dairy products is less prevalent.

Since the 1960s, when diets high in saturated fat were linked to elevated "bad" LDL cholesterol and , dietary guidelines recommended restricting saturated fatty acids across the board. In recent years, research studies have raised some questions about what was considered established evidence. Inconsistent findings have pointed to the possibility that different types of saturated fats have different effects on cholesterol levels and the development of coronary heart disease. Despite the fact that their study's findings support this hypothesis, Dr. Sluijs and her fellow investigators recommend proceeding with caution before changing :

"Our study only allowed us to draw conclusions on the level of associations between saturated fatty acids and the development of myocardial infarction. We do not know whether those fatty acids are actually the cause of differences between the occurrences of myocardial infarction we observed. To further explore this, we need experiments in which the consumption of saturated fatty acids is more controlled and, for instance, compared with consumption of unsaturated fatty acids," she noted.

"The study is applaudable for its large size, prospective cohort study design, and detailed assessment of diet and lifestyle factors. In addition, it is among the few studies that specifically examined individual saturated fatty acids in relation to coronary heart disease risk and compared with different macronutrients," commented Jun Li, MD, Ph.D., and Qi Sun, MD, ScD, both at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA, in an accompanying editorial. They also noted a few limitations of the study and thus called for cautious interpretation of the overall null results for the primary saturated .

Dr. Li and Dr. Sun advise that shifts in fat intake should align with the recommended healthy dietary patterns, which emphasize limited intakes of red and processed meat and added sugars, lower salt intake, replacement of refined grains with whole grains, and higher consumption of fruits and vegetables.


Explore further

Consuming high amounts of saturated fats linked to increased heart disease risk

More information: Jaike Praagman et al. Consumption of individual saturated fatty acids and the risk of myocardial infarction in a UK and a Danish cohort, International Journal of Cardiology (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.10.064

Jun Li et al. Consumption of saturated fatty acids and coronary heart disease risk, International Journal of Cardiology (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.01.022

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Jan 28, 2019
Again the declaration that what "science" was so sure of is no longer so certain. The claim that all cholesterol is bad, then that only "low density lipoproteins" can harm you, then that no cholesterol is dangerous. Replacing the "four food groups" with the lunatic "food pyramid", and, now has been replaced with the model of a plate divided into four parts, with a different kind of food in each part. The since discredited "body mass index".
And, incidentally, note the reference to research raising questions "about what was considered established evidence". Another term for that can be "settled science", the same phrase used to describe what they call "climate change" due to "fossil fuels". "Climate" is all qualities, included land, oceans, solar radiation, the atmosphere, life, affecting weather. Land, the seas, solar radiation, life have not changed. Climate is not changing! Weather is changing, but that's due to chemtrailing.

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