A growing number of countries and territories around the world are forcing people, often in specific sectors, to be vaccinated against COVID-19.
Here is a roundup:
Mandatory in a few countries
Ex-Soviet Tajikistan and Turkmenistan, along with the Vatican, are among the rare countries imposing vaccinations on all adults.
In Tajikistan the official news agency has published a government decree obliging all over 18s to be vaccinated, without giving further details.
Turkmenistan, one of the few countries yet to declare a single case, has announced it will introduce mandatory vaccinations for all adults.
In the Vatican, the world's smallest state, vaccinations were made obligatory for residents and workers in February.
Several countries or territories have imposed vaccinations on certain sections of the population.
French healthcare staff, retirement home workers and others working with vulnerable people have until September 15 to get vaccinated.
And the imposition of a health pass, restricting access to places like cinemas, museums, restaurants and long distance travel to the vaccinated or those with a negative test, piles on the pressure to be jabbed.
Vaccination for health workers in both the public and private sectors will become mandatory from September 1.
Italian doctors and health workers in the public and private sector must get vaccinated or face being banned from working directly with patients.
A group of 300 Italian health workers has gone to court to try to get the obligation overturned.
All care home staff in England will need to be fully vaccinated from October unless they have a medical exemption.
The mayor of Moscow Sergei Sobyanin has ordered mandatory jabs for residents of the Russian capital working in the service industry.
Since then other localities have taken similar measures, including Saint Petersburg.
The ex-Soviet nation has ordered workers in sectors ranging from the service industry to banking to entertainment to be vaccinated or be restricted from working face-to-face with others.
The prime minister Frank Bainimarama has issued a blunt message: "no jabs, no job".
All public servants will be dismissed if they have not received their second shot by November 1 and private sector employees must have their first by August 1 or face hefty fines and companies could be shut down.
Vaccination has been compulsory in Equatorial Guinea since July 20 for certain professions including the military, health workers and teachers.
Prime Minister Viktor Orban has said vaccination will become compulsory for caregivers without giving further details.
President Joe Biden stopped short of a vaccination mandate for federal workers but on July 29 marked a dramatic return to virus restrictions.
He has asked all four million US federal workers and on-site contractors to attest to their vaccination status and those who do not declare they are fully vaccinated must wear masks and be tested.
California and New York City have announced public sector workers will need to get vaccinated or take weekly tests.
San Francisco has said it will require all municipal employees to be vaccinated or they could face penalties up to and including dismissal.
The new rule will not take effect until the vaccines have received full approval from the US Food and Drug Administration.
In a number of places, while there is no formal requirement for vaccination, restrictions for the non-vaccinated mean there is a de facto obligation.
Riyadh has decided that anyone using public transport or entering a government or private establishment or sports venue must be vaccinated from August 1.
Only vaccinated employees in the public and private sector can enter their workplaces.
The southern Pakistani province of Balochistan has implemented a ban on unvaccinated people entering government offices, public parks, shopping malls and public transport.
The province of Sindh says it will refuse to pay government employees who have not been vaccinated, and neighbouring Punjab has said it will block the mobile phones of people refusing to get jabs.
Some 20 local communities including the city of Chuxiong in Yunnan province have warned that unvaccinated residents over 18 will soon no longer be admitted to hospitals, schools or on public transport.
© 2021 AFP