Medical research

3-D bioPen: A hydrogel injection to regenerate cartilage

Highly specialized cartilage is characteristically avascular and non-neural in composition with low cell numbers in an aliphatic environment. Despite its apparent simplicity, bioengineering regenerative hyaline cartilage ...

Medical research

The art of building bone

Cell differentiation is a widely studied phenomenon forming the basis of all developmental processes including fetal growth and bone fracture healing. A series of recent studies indicates the emerging role of chondrocyte-to-osteoblast ...

Medical research

3-D printed biomaterials for bone tissue engineering

When skeletal defects are unable to heal on their own, bone tissue engineering (BTE), a developing field in orthopedics can combine materials science, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to facilitate bone repair. ...

Medical research

Mitochondrial DNA mutations: The good, the bad, and the ugly

(Medical Xpress)—Programmers typically evolve new code by copying and modifying existing code to meet new needs. With the more advanced programming languages, they also make use of something known in the business as polymorphism—the ...

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