Attention deficit disorders

Pediatric group issues updated ADHD guidelines

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is in the news a lot, and now newer research has prompted a leading pediatricians' group to update its guidelines for diagnosing and treating the disorder for the first time ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Interactive avatar boosts performance of children with ADHD

A new study has shown that an interactive avatar, which gives both instructions and feedback on the attention of the learner, can improve the performance of ADHD children on a complex problem-solving task. Researchers concluded ...

Attention deficit disorders

Youngest in classroom diagnosed more often with ADHD, other problems

(HealthDay)—If a child can't sit still or blurts out random thoughts in kindergarten or first grade, does the child have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Or is the youngster just not mature enough to sit ...

Attention deficit disorders

ADHD medication: How much is too much for a hyperactive child?

When children with ADHD don't respond well to Methylphenidate (MPH, also known as Ritalin) doctors often increase the dose. Now a new review shows that increasing the dose may not always be the best option, as it may have ...

Autism spectrum disorders

There's no evidence caesarean sections cause autism or ADHD

A new study that combines data from over 20 million births has found that a cesarean section delivery is associated with autism spectrum disorder (autism) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Psychology & Psychiatry

Preventing ADHD: Positive mothers, well-behaved kids

Studies have shown that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children can be reduced through positive parenting: by encouraging them, reassuring them, structuring their tasks and, of course, giving affection.

Attention deficit disorders

ADHD medication may affect brain development in children

A drug used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appears to affect the development of the brain's signal-carrying white matter in children with the disorder, according to a study published in the journal ...

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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or AD/HD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder. [Requires registration] ADHD is defined as a “persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity—impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and more severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development.” While symptoms may appear to be innocent and merely annoying nuisances to observers, "if left untreated, the persistent and pervasive effects of ADHD symptoms can insidiously and severely interfere with one's ability to get the most out of education, fulfill one's potential in the workplace, establish and maintain interpersonal relationships, and maintain a generally positive sense of self.":p.2

ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children, affecting about 3 to 5% of children globally with symptoms starting before seven years of age. ADHD is a common chronic disorder in children with 30 to 50% of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have symptoms into adulthood. Adolescents and adults with ADHD tend to develop coping mechanisms to compensate for some or all of their impairments. However, many aspects of daily life that most people take for granted are rendered more difficult by the symptoms of ADHD.[clarification needed]

Though previously regarded as a childhood diagnosis, ADHD can continue throughout adulthood. 4.7 percent of American adults are estimated to live with ADHD. ADHD is diagnosed twice to four times as frequently in boys as in girls, though studies suggest this discrepancy may be due to subjective bias of referring teachers. ADHD management usually involves some combination of medications, behavior modifications, lifestyle changes, and counseling. Its symptoms can be difficult to differentiate from other psychiatric or other disorders, increasing the likelihood that the diagnosis of ADHD will be missed. Additionally, most clinicians have not received formal training in the assessment and treatment of ADHD, particularly in adult patients.

ADHD and its diagnosis and treatment have been considered controversial since the 1970s. The controversies have involved clinicians, teachers, policymakers, parents and the media. Opinions regarding ADHD range from not believing it exists at all to believing there are genetic and physiological bases for the condition as well as disagreement about the use of stimulant medications in treatment. Most healthcare providers accept that ADHD is a genuine disorder with debate in the scientific community centering mainly around how it is diagnosed and treated.

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