Attention deficit disorders

Vitamins, minerals improve symptoms for children with ADHD

Children with ADHD and emotional dysregulation who were given a micronutrient-dense formula made of all known vitamins and essential minerals were three times more likely to have better concentration and improved moods, research ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Two in five adults with ADHD are in excellent mental health

A new nationally representative study published online in the International Journal of Applied Positive Psychology found two in five adults (42%) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were in excellent mental ...

Obstetrics & gynaecology

Smoking during pregnancy may not cause ADHD in children after all

A new systematic review and meta-analysis published in the scientific journal Addiction and led by University of Bristol researchers shows that maternal prenatal smoking is associated with offspring attention-deficit hyperactivity ...

Attention deficit disorders

Caffeine could be a valid option for treating some ADHD symptoms

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, is a psychiatric pathology for which diagnosis has increased exponentially over the last 20 years. In fact, current estimates suggest that this disorder affects between 2% ...

Attention deficit disorders

Prenatal opioid exposure increases risk for childhood ADHD

Prenatal opioid exposure is associated with a significantly higher risk for subsequent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and carries a higher risk than exposure to other substances, according to a study published ...

Attention deficit disorders

ADHD looks different in adults: Four signs to watch for

Many people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may not receive a diagnosis until adulthood. Adult symptoms can look a little different to those of childhood.

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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or AD/HD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder. [Requires registration] ADHD is defined as a “persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity—impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and more severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development.” While symptoms may appear to be innocent and merely annoying nuisances to observers, "if left untreated, the persistent and pervasive effects of ADHD symptoms can insidiously and severely interfere with one's ability to get the most out of education, fulfill one's potential in the workplace, establish and maintain interpersonal relationships, and maintain a generally positive sense of self.":p.2

ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children, affecting about 3 to 5% of children globally with symptoms starting before seven years of age. ADHD is a common chronic disorder in children with 30 to 50% of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have symptoms into adulthood. Adolescents and adults with ADHD tend to develop coping mechanisms to compensate for some or all of their impairments. However, many aspects of daily life that most people take for granted are rendered more difficult by the symptoms of ADHD.[clarification needed]

Though previously regarded as a childhood diagnosis, ADHD can continue throughout adulthood. 4.7 percent of American adults are estimated to live with ADHD. ADHD is diagnosed twice to four times as frequently in boys as in girls, though studies suggest this discrepancy may be due to subjective bias of referring teachers. ADHD management usually involves some combination of medications, behavior modifications, lifestyle changes, and counseling. Its symptoms can be difficult to differentiate from other psychiatric or other disorders, increasing the likelihood that the diagnosis of ADHD will be missed. Additionally, most clinicians have not received formal training in the assessment and treatment of ADHD, particularly in adult patients.

ADHD and its diagnosis and treatment have been considered controversial since the 1970s. The controversies have involved clinicians, teachers, policymakers, parents and the media. Opinions regarding ADHD range from not believing it exists at all to believing there are genetic and physiological bases for the condition as well as disagreement about the use of stimulant medications in treatment. Most healthcare providers accept that ADHD is a genuine disorder with debate in the scientific community centering mainly around how it is diagnosed and treated.

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