HIV & AIDS

To end HIV epidemic, we must address health disparities

Scientific strides in HIV treatment and prevention have reduced transmissions and HIV-related deaths significantly in the United States in the past two decades. However, despite coordinated national efforts to implement HIV ...

Medical research

New approach needed for newborns with hearing loss

Parents are often struggling with hearing aid management for their newborn babies, according to research by University of Manchester and NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) experts.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

EU plans vaccines as regulator sets approval deadline

European countries were on Tuesday given a clear timeframe for the start of their vaccination programmes after the bloc's medicines regulator said it would decide by December 29 whether to grant emergency approval for the ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Pfizer seeks EU vaccine approval as OECD sees recovery in 2021

Pharma companies Pfizer and BioNTech on Tuesday filed for European approval for their coronavirus vaccine, following in the footsteps of competitor Moderna, while the OECD predicted the world economy would bounce back to ...

Gerontology & Geriatrics

Experts urge FDA to allow over-the-counter hearing aids

Hearing loss experts at Mass Eye and Ear are advocating for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to implement a law passed by Congress permitting the sale of over-the-counter (OTC) hearing aids.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Drug being tested for at-home treatment in hopes of slowing virus

Researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center are testing a new approach to fighting COVID-19, using a repurposed antiviral AIDS drug for at-home treatment during the first days of symptoms in hopes of slowing the virus ...

page 1 from 40

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, and breast milk.

This transmission can involve anal, vaginal or oral sex, blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic needles, exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding or other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids.

AIDS is now a pandemic. In 2007, it was estimated that 33.2 million people lived with the disease worldwide, and that AIDS had killed an estimated 2.1 million people, including 330,000 children. Over three-quarters of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa, retarding economic growth and destroying human capital.

Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. AIDS was first recognized by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 and its cause, HIV, identified in the early 1980s.

Although treatments for AIDS and HIV can slow the course of the disease, there is currently no vaccine or cure. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but these drugs are expensive and routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries. Due to the difficulty in treating HIV infection, preventing infection is a key aim in controlling the AIDS pandemic, with health organizations promoting safe sex and needle-exchange programmes in attempts to slow the spread of the virus.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA