Cardiology

To have or not to have... your left atrial appendage closed

Each year in the U.S., more than 300,000 people have heart surgery. To reduce risk of stroke for their patients, surgeons often will close the left atrial appendage, which is a small sac in the left side of the heart where ...

Cardiology

Ablating non-pulmonary vein triggers improves A-fib outcome

(HealthDay)—For patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with two or more failed pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) procedures, ablating non-PV triggers is associated with improved outcomes, according to a study published online ...

Neuroscience

How whip-like cell appendages promote bodily fluid flow

Researchers at Nagoya University have identified a molecule that enables cell appendages called cilia to beat in a coordinated way to drive the flow of fluid around the brain; this prevents the accumulation of this fluid, ...

Cardiology

Closing left atrial appendage reduces stroke risk from AFib

For patients with atrial fibrillation (AFib), a common heart rhythm disorder, closing the area of the heart known as the left atrial appendage as an add-on procedure during cardiac surgery was associated with a 40 percent ...

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Appendage

In invertebrate biology, an appendage is an external body part, or natural prolongation, that protrudes from an organism's body (in verterbrate biology, an example would be a vertebrate's limbs). It is a general term that covers any of the homologous body parts that may extend from a body segment. These include antennae, mouthparts (including mandibles, maxillae and maxillipeds), wings, elytra, gills, walking legs (pereiopods), swimming legs (pleopods), sexual organs (gonopods), and parts of the tail (uropods). Typically, each body segment carries one pair of appendages.

An appendage which is modified to assist in feeding is known as a maxilliped or gnathopod.

Appendages may be uniramous, as in insects and centipedes, where each appendage comprises a single series of segments, or it may be biramous, as in many crustaceans, where each appendage branches into two sections. Triramous (branching into three) appendages are also possible.

All arthropod appendages are variations of the same basic structure (homologous), and which structure is produced is controlled by "homeobox" genes. Changes to these genes have allowed scientists to produce animals (chiefly Drosophila melanogaster) with modified appendages, such as legs instead of antennae.

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