Genetics

Autism: How a gene alteration modifies social behavior

A team of researchers at the Biozentrum, University of Basel, has discovered a new connection between a genetic alteration and social difficulties related to autism: A mutation in the neuroligin-3 gene reduces the effect ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Cell antennas lacking in Fragile X syndrome, study finds

Structures called primary cilia—which act like TV antennas for cells to detect signals—are present in fewer numbers in mice born with Fragile X syndrome, according to researchers from The University of Texas Health Science ...

Autism spectrum disorders

Challenging the representation of autism in Vietnamese media

With the first-hand experience of raising a son with autism, a Massey University international Ph.D. student has called for a national communication strategy and action plan in her home country Vietnam, to change the way ...

Neuroscience

Autism researchers map brain circuitry of social preference

Some individuals love meeting new people, while others abhor the idea. For individuals with conditions such as autism, unfamiliar social interactions can produce negative emotions such as fear and anxiety. A new study from ...

Neuroscience

Vascular development may be at risk in autism

A Canadian collaboration led by Dr. Baptiste Lacoste has undertaken the first ever in-depth study of vasculature in the autistic brain. The product of four years of work, a paper published today in Nature Neuroscience lays ...

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Autism

Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. These signs all begin before a child is three years old. Autism involves many parts of the brain; how this occurs is not well understood. The two other autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are Asperger syndrome, which lacks delays in cognitive development and language, and PDD-NOS, diagnosed when full criteria for the other two disorders are not met.

Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by rare mutations, or by rare combinations of common genetic variants. In rare cases, autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects. Controversies surround other proposed environmental causes, such as heavy metals, pesticides or childhood vaccines; the vaccine hypotheses are biologically implausible and lack convincing scientific evidence. The prevalence of ASD is about 6 per 1,000 people, with about four times as many males as females. The number of people known to have autism has increased dramatically since the 1980s, partly due to changes in diagnostic practice; the question of whether actual prevalence has increased is unresolved.

Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child's life. Although early behavioral or cognitive intervention can help children gain self-care, social, and communication skills, there is no known cure. Not many children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, though some become successful. An autistic culture has developed, with some individuals seeking a cure and others believing autism should be tolerated as a difference and not treated as a disorder.

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