Medical research

Nicotine works inside cells to reinforce addiction: study

When a person takes a puff on a cigarette, nicotine floods into the brain, latching onto receptors on the surface of neurons and producing feelings of happiness. But nicotine does not simply stay on the surface of cells—the ...

Medical research

Facilitating diagnosis with a new type of biosensor

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute and EPFL have developed a new type of biosensor able to precisely quantify metabolites using a single drop of blood. The accuracy and simplicity of the procedure could make it a tool ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Purdue startup developing device that detects mosquito-borne diseases

A startup created by Purdue University professors is developing a sensor that can detect dangerous mosquito-borne tropical diseases faster and at a lower cost than current methods, giving health officials time to take action ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Stopping a tiny—and deadly—fly in its tracks

Sixty million people in sub-Saharan Africa live at risk of African sleeping sickness, a disease caused by parasites transmitted through the tsetse fly. In the late stage of the disease, when the parasite crosses the blood-brain ...

Cancer

Biosensors for bladder cancer diagnosis

Cancer constitutes one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. As early diagnosis is paramount to improved clinical outcome and survival, sensitive diagnostics capable of detecting cancer-related molecules are necessary.

Medical research

Biosensor mouse lights up health and disease

Researchers from Sydney's Garvan Institute of Medical Research and the UK have developed a glow-in-the-dark "biosensor mouse" that gives a real-time readout of the rapidly changing "skeleton" within cells.

Medical research

A microfluidic biochip for blood cell counts at the point-of-care

Teams of researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) have demonstrated a biosensor capable of counting the blood cells electrically using only a drop of blood. The blood cell count is among the ...

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Biosensor

A biosensor is a device for the detection of an analyte that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector component.

It consists of 3 parts:

The most widespread example of a commercial biosensor is the blood glucose biosensor, which uses the enzyme glucose oxidase to break blood glucose down. In doing so it first oxidizes glucose and uses two electrons to reduce the FAD (a component of the enzyme) to FADH2. This in turn is oxidized by the electrode (accepting two electrons from the electrode) in a number of steps. The resulting current is a measure of the concentration of glucose. In this case, the electrode is the transducer and the enzyme is the biologically active component.

Recently, arrays of many different detector molecules have been applied in so called electronic nose devices, where the pattern of response from the detectors is used to fingerprint a substance. Current commercial electronic noses, however, do not use biological elements.

A canary in a cage, as used by miners to warn of gas could be considered a biosensor. Many of today's biosensor applications are similar, in that they use organisms which respond to toxic substances at a much lower level than us to warn us of their presence. Such devices can be used in environmental monitoring, trace gas detection and in water treatment facilities.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA