Health

Researchers training machines to recognize vocal fatigue

Even before COVID-19 had them speaking up in online classrooms or projecting their voices from behind masks, teachers were at high risk of vocal fatigue. This condition can cause persistent hoarseness, throat pain and permanent ...

Neuroscience

Brain activation in sleeping toddlers shows memory for words

Very young children learn words at a tremendous rate. Now researchers at the Center for Mind and Brain at the University of California, Davis, have for the first time seen how specific brain regions activate as two-year-olds ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Why do we remember stressful experiences better?

Stressful experiences are usually remembered more easily than neutral experiences. Researchers at Ruhr-Universit├Ąt Bochum (RUB) have analyzed the reasons why this is the case. They put people in stressful situations during ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Brain 'noise' may hold the keys to psychiatric treatment efficacy

It remains a central challenge in psychiatry to reliably judge whether a patient will respond to treatment. In a new study published in the journal Biological Psychiatry, researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and ...

Neuroscience

Does the brain learn in the same way that machines learn?

Pinpointing how neural activity changes with learning is anything but black and white. Recently, some have posited that learning in the brain, or biological learning, can be thought of in terms of optimization, which is how ...

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Electroencephalography

Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 20–40 minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. In neurology, the main diagnostic application of EEG is in the case of epilepsy, as epileptic activity can create clear abnormalities on a standard EEG study. A secondary clinical use of EEG is in the diagnosis of coma and encephalopathies. EEG used to be a first-line method for the diagnosis of tumors, stroke and other focal brain disorders, but this use has decreased with the advent of anatomical imaging techniques such as MRI and CT.

Derivatives of the EEG technique include evoked potentials (EP), which involves averaging the EEG activity time-locked to the presentation of a stimulus of some sort (visual, somatosensory, or auditory). Event-related potentials refer to averaged EEG responses that are time-locked to more complex processing of stimuli; this technique is used in cognitive science, cognitive psychology, and psychophysiological research.

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