Alzheimer's disease & dementia

Can a calculator predict your risk of dementia?

Canadian researchers at The Ottawa Hospital, the University of Ottawa, the Bruyère Research Institute and ICES have built and validated an online calculator that empowers individuals 55 and over to better understand the ...

Medical research

Strength in numbers shown in ambulatory care metrics

The difference made to health care quality measurement by voluntary data sharing across a region's health systems and ambulatory care practices is examined in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association by ...

Vaccination

Russia says Sputnik V virus vaccine 95% effective

Russia said Tuesday its Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine was 95 percent effective and would be cheaper and easier to store than some alternatives, as the global race heats up to develop a jab.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

New miniature system to study kidney and intestine function

Researchers at Utrecht University have developed a new organ-on-a-chip: a device to mimic and study kidneys and intestines in miniature format. The device is the result of a special collaboration between pharmacology and ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Quantifying the impact of interventions

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS) and the University of Göttingen have now succeeded in analyzing the German COVID-19 case numbers with respect to past containment measures ...

Oncology & Cancer

Geography of childhood cancer in Switzerland studied

While cancer is rare in children, it is the second most common cause of death during childhood in Switzerland and other European countries. In Switzerland, about 250 children and adolescents under the age of 16 are diagnosed ...

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Calculator

An electronic calculator is a small, portable, usually inexpensive electronic device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic. Modern calculators are more portable than most computers, though most PDAs are comparable in size to handheld calculators.

The first solid-state electronic calculator was created in the 1960s, building on the history of tools such as the abacus, developed around 2000 BC; and the mechanical calculator, developed in the 17th century. It was developed in parallel with the analog computers of the day.

Pocket-sized devices become available in the 1970s, especially after the invention of the microprocessor developed serendipitously by Intel for a Busicom calculator.

Modern electronic calculators vary from cheap, give-away, credit-card sized models to sturdy desktop models with built-in printers. They became popular in the mid 1970's as integrated circuits made their size and cost small. By the end of that decade, calculator prices had reduced to a point where a basic calculator was affordable to most and they became common in schools.

Computer operating systems as far back as early Unix have included interactive calculator programs such as dc and hoc, and calculator functions are included in almost all PDA-type devices (save a few dedicated address book and dictionary devices).

In addition to general purpose calculators, there are those designed for specific markets; for example, there are scientific calculators which include trigonometric and statistical calculations. Some calculators even have the ability to do computer algebra. Graphing calculators can be used to graph functions defined on the real line, or higher dimensional Euclidean space.

In 1986, calculators still represented an estimated 41% of the world's general-purpose hardware capacity to compute information. This diminished to less than 0.05% by 2007.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA