Neuroscience

How manganese produces a parkinsonian syndrome

Using X-ray fluorescence at synchrotrons DESY and ESRF, researchers in the Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan (CNRS/Université de Bordeaux) have demonstrated the consequences of a mutation responsible for ...

Medical research

Stem cell transplant slows progression of multiple sclerosis

(HealthDay)—For patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCST) is associated with prolonged time to disease progression compared with disease-modifying ...

Cancer

Regulation and potential drug targets of tumor-associated Tregs

According to estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO), there will be 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million cancer deaths worldwide in 2018. Cancer is a serious disease that affects people all over the world. And ...

Immunology

Chaos in the body tunes up your immune system

Chaos in bodily regulation can optimize our immune system according to a recent discovery made by researchers at the University of Copenhagen's Niels Bohr Institute. The discovery may prove to be of great significance for ...

Immunology

Researchers discover new immune response regulators

The research groups of Academy Professor Riitta Lahesmaa and Research Director Laura Elo from Turku Centre for Biotechnology have discovered new proteins that regulate T cells in the human immune system. Some of these proteins ...

Medical research

Scientists have identified a bone marrow backup system

New research from the Stowers Institute for Medical Research has identified the backup for an important biological system—the hematopoietic system, whose adult stem cells constantly replenish the body's blood supply.

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Cell (biology)

The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living, and is often called the building block of life. Some organisms, such as most bacteria, are unicellular (consist of a single cell). Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular. (Humans have an estimated 100 trillion or 1014 cells; a typical cell size is 10 µm; a typical cell mass is 1 nanogram.) The largest known cell is an unfertilized ostrich egg cell.

In 1835 before the final cell theory was developed, a Czech Jan Evangelista Purkyně observed small "granules" while looking at the plant tissue through a microscope. The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells. All cells come from preexisting cells. Vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.

The word cell comes from the Latin cellula, meaning, a small room. The descriptive name for the smallest living biological structure was chosen by Robert Hooke in a book he published in 1665 when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the small rooms monks lived in.

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