Medical research

Exercise may have different effects in the morning and evening

Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have learned that the effect of exercise may differ depending on the time of day it is performed. In mice, they demonstrate that exercise in the morning results in an increased ...

Alzheimer's disease & dementia

Modified protein can prevent Alzheimer's disease in mice

The amyloid precursor protein has always been vilified as a major cause of Alzheimer's disease. One of its fragments, the amyloid-beta peptide, can break off and accumulate in the brain, giving rise to the puffy white globs ...

Oncology & Cancer

Determining risk of recurrence in triple-negative breast cancer

A personalized prognosis for patients diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer was the goal of a new study by Katherine Varley, Ph.D., researcher at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) and assistant professor of oncological ...

Oncology & Cancer

Immunotherapy drug shows potential to cure advanced lung cancer

In a new study including Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital researchers, the cancer immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda), increased survival for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), ...

Medical research

Drug to treat malaria could mitigate hereditary hearing loss

The ability to hear depends on proteins to reach the outer membrane of sensory cells in the inner ear. But in certain types of hereditary hearing loss, mutations in the protein prevent it from reaching these membranes. Using ...

Medical research

Rheumatoid arthritic pain could be caused by antibodies

Antibodies that exist in the joints before the onset of rheumatoid arthritis can cause pain even in the absence of arthritis, researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden report. The researchers believe that the finding, ...

Medical research

Protein shows promise in treating Parkinson's disease

The true cause of Parkinson's disease is still a mystery to researchers, although they do know that in many patients, a protein called alpha-synuclein (aSyn) tends to aggregate in brain cells. But a different protein could ...

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Cell (biology)

The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living, and is often called the building block of life. Some organisms, such as most bacteria, are unicellular (consist of a single cell). Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular. (Humans have an estimated 100 trillion or 1014 cells; a typical cell size is 10 µm; a typical cell mass is 1 nanogram.) The largest known cell is an unfertilized ostrich egg cell.

In 1835 before the final cell theory was developed, a Czech Jan Evangelista Purkyně observed small "granules" while looking at the plant tissue through a microscope. The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells. All cells come from preexisting cells. Vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.

The word cell comes from the Latin cellula, meaning, a small room. The descriptive name for the smallest living biological structure was chosen by Robert Hooke in a book he published in 1665 when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the small rooms monks lived in.

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