Psychology & Psychiatry

War songs and lullabies behind origins of music

Love is not the reason why we sing and create symphonies—at least not the primary reason, according to a new evolutionary theory of the origins of music.

Oncology & Cancer

Immune system key to understanding cancer evolution

A collection of papers published in Nature journals have transformed our understanding of how lung cancer evolves over time, in particular how the surrounding environment and immune system drives changes.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Sneaky virus 'goes easy on women to infect kids'

At least one kind of virus has become less lethal when targeting a woman to ensure she does not die before it can infect her offspring, according to a study released Tuesday.

Psychology & Psychiatry

Jane Austen, evolutionary psychologist

Last year, the Bank of England announced that a sketch of Jane Austen will replace Charles Darwin on the ten-pound note. Austen is one of the most popular authors of fiction; her works have been translated into more than ...

Obstetrics & gynaecology

Are we cutting umbilical cords too soon after birth?

The most common surgical procedure in the world today – one that every human alive today has undergone – is the clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord at birth. The need for clamping and cutting the cord is not in ...

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist[I] who realised and presented compelling evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors, through the process he called natural selection. The fact that evolution occurs became accepted by the scientific community and much of the general public in his lifetime, while his theory of natural selection came to be widely seen as the primary explanation of the process of evolution in the 1930s, and now forms the basis of modern evolutionary theory. In modified form, Darwin’s scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life.

At Edinburgh University Darwin neglected medical studies to investigate marine invertebrates, then the University of Cambridge encouraged a passion for natural science. His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell’s uniformitarian ideas, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin investigated the transmutation of species and conceived his theory of natural selection in 1838. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay which described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.

His 1859 book On the Origin of Species established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. He examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil.

In recognition of Darwin’s pre-eminence, he was one of only five 19th-century UK non-royal personages to be honoured by a state funeral, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, close to John Herschel and Isaac Newton.

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