Medical research

Researchers are one step closer to artificial livers

Prometheus, the mythological figure who stole fire from the gods, was punished for this theft by being bound to a rock. Each day, an eagle swept down and fed on his liver, which then grew back to be eaten again the next day.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Parasite paralysis: A new way to fight schistosomiasis?

Scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have isolated a natural chemical that acts as a potent kryptonite against schistosomes, the parasitic worms that burrow through human skin and cause devastating health problems.

Neuroscience

Speeding up drug discovery for brain diseases

A research team led by Whitehead Institute scientists has identified 30 distinct chemical compounds—20 of which are drugs undergoing clinical trial or have already been approved by the FDA—that boost the protein production ...

Genetics

Genes linked to death from sepsis identified in mice

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's immune response to infection spirals out of control. Bacteria in the bloodstream trigger immune cells to release powerful molecules called cytokines to quickly ...

Diabetes

New insight into the biology of insulin release

In a new study, Yale researchers challenge a long-held assumption about how insulin-producing cells in the pancreas sense and respond to glucose. Their findings could lead to changes in the way that scientists approach the ...

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions and that have a unique and defined chemical structure. Chemical compounds consist of a fixed ratio of atoms that are held together in a defined spatial arrangement by chemical bonds. Chemical compounds can be compound molecules held together by covalent bonds, salts held together by ionic bonds, metallic compounds held together by metallic bonds, or complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds. Substances such as pure chemical elements and elemental molecules consisting of multiple atoms of a single element (such as H2, S8, etc.) are not considered chemical compounds.

Elements form compounds to become more stable. They become stable when they have the maximum number of possible electrons in their outermost energy level, which is normally two or eight valence electrons. This is the reason that noble gases do not frequently react: they already possess eight valence electrons (the exception being helium, which requires only two valence electrons to achieve stability).

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