Medical research

Shelf-stable vaccines avoid waste, expand access

More than 50% of all vaccines are wasted due to errors in transportation or storage, according to the World Health Organization. A research team led by Northwestern and Cornell universities has developed a new manufacturing ...

Neuroscience

Researchers discover the key to long-term memory

After a 30-year quest, a Brandeis professor has discovered the molecule that stores long-term memories—it's called calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, or CaMKII for short. The results were published on September ...

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of chemical substances. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products, which usually have properties different from the reactants. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that strictly involve the motion of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds, although the general concept of a chemical reaction, in particular the notion of a chemical equation, is applicable to transformations of elementary particles, as well as nuclear reactions. Different chemical reactions are used in combination in chemical synthesis in order to get a desired product. In biochemistry, series of chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes form metabolic pathways, by which syntheses and decompositions ordinarily impossible in conditions within a cell are performed.

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