Psychology & Psychiatry

'Dialogic praxis' enhances psychotherapeutic success for youth

For young patients, therapy works best when they are encouraged to become co-experts in the search for answers, according to a Perspectives article published by the New England Journal of Medicine co-authored by Dominique ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Mayo Clinic Q and A: understanding binge eating disorder

What is binge eating disorder? I've heard of anorexia and bulimia. But I'd never heard binge eating described as a disorder until my nephew was diagnosed with it. How is it treated?

Psychology & Psychiatry

Could brain scans spot children's mood, attention problems early?

Children's mental health issues are hard to predict until they're causing problems, but researchers may have found a way to use brain scans to spot which kids are at risk for depression, anxiety and attention problems.

Health

Refined carbs may trigger insomnia, finds study

An estimated 30% of adults experience insomnia, and a new study by researchers at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons suggests that diet may be partly to blame.

Psychology & Psychiatry

'Safety signals' may help slow down anxiety

For as many as one in three people, life events or situations that pose no real danger can spark a disabling fear, a hallmark of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressants help ...

Dentistry

Behavioral sciences in the promotion of oral health

2019 marks the Centennial of the Journal of Dental Research (JDR). Over the last century the JDR has been dedicated to the dissemination of new knowledge and information on all sciences relevant to dentistry and to the oral ...

Cardiology

VA, DoD update guideline for rehabilitation after stroke

(HealthDay)—In a systematic review and clinical practice guideline, published online Nov. 19 in Annals of Internal Medicine, recommendations from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and the U.S. Department of Defense ...

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy (or cognitive behavior therapy, CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach that aims to influence dysfunctional emotions, behaviors and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. CBT can be seen as an umbrella term for a number of psychological techniques that share a theoretical basis in behavioristic learning theory and cognitive psychology.

There is empirical evidence that CBT is effective for the treatment of a variety of problems, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, and psychotic disorders. Treatment is often brief, and time-limited. CBT is used in individual therapy as well as group settings, and the techniques are often adapted for self-help applications. Some CBT therapies are more orientated towards predominantly cognitive interventions, while others are more behaviorally orientated.

In recent years, cognitive behavioral approaches have become widespread in correctional settings. These programs are designed to teach offenders cognitive skills that may reduce criminal behaviors. In many countries, it has become commonplace to find cognitive behavioral program strategies in use in prisons and jails. In cognitive orientated therapies, the objective is typically to identify and monitor thoughts, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors that accompany and are related to negative emotions, and to identify those which are dysfunctional, inaccurate, or unhelpful. The aim is to replace or transcend them with those which are more realistic and useful.

CBT was primarily developed through a merging of behavior therapy with cognitive therapy. While rooted in rather different theories, these two traditions found common ground in focusing on the "here and now", and on alleviating symptoms. Many CBT treatment programs for specific disorders have been evaluated for efficacy and effectiveness; the health-care trend of evidence-based treatment, where specific treatments for symptom-based diagnoses are recommended, has favored CBT over other approaches such as psychodynamic treatments. In the United Kingdom, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommends CBT as the treatment of choice for a number of mental health difficulties, including post-traumatic stress disorder, OCD, bulimia nervosa and clinical depression.

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