Neuroscience

Perception of musical pitch varies across cultures

People who are accustomed to listening to Western music, which is based on a system of notes organized in octaves, can usually perceive the similarity between notes that are same but played in different registers—say, high ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Researchers suggest cultural outreach prevents social exclusion

Even though the majority of Finnish youth are thriving, some of them are wrestling with a host of problems. Studies find that 14% of Finns born in 1987 hadn't completed any degrees within nine years after completing the nine-year ...

Medical research

Mutant live attenuated Ebola virus immunizes non-human primates

Inoculation with an Ebola virus that has mutations in a protein called VP35 does not cause disease and elicits protection in monkeys, researchers show September 17 in the journal Cell Reports. The findings suggest that the ...

Genetics

Scientists identify gene as master regulator in schizophrenia

Using computational tools to investigate gene transcription networks in large collections of brain tissues, a scientific team has identified a gene that acts as a master regulator of schizophrenia during early human brain ...

Health

Supporting menstruating girls: Are we making progress?

Attention to menstruation and its relationship to girls' schooling is gaining ground, yet many challenges remain. Interventions have often focused on developing WASH —water, sanitation and hygiene—infrastructure and menstrual ...

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Culture

Culture (Latin: cultura, lit. "cultivation") is a term that has many different inter-related meanings. For example, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. However, the word "culture" is most commonly used in three basic senses:

When the concept first emerged in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe, it connoted a process of cultivation or improvement, as in agriculture or horticulture. In the nineteenth century, it came to refer first to the betterment or refinement of the individual, especially through education, and then to the fulfillment of national aspirations or ideals. In the mid-nineteenth century, some scientists used the term "culture" to refer to a universal human capacity. For the German nonpositivist sociologist Georg Simmel, culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history".

In the twentieth century, "culture" emerged as a concept central to anthropology, encompassing all human phenomena that are not purely results of human genetics. Specifically, the term "culture" in American anthropology had two meanings: (1) the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and (2) the distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively. Following World War II, the term became important, albeit with different meanings, in other disciplines such as cultural studies, organizational psychology and management studies.[citation needed]

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