Psychology & Psychiatry

Does your pain feel different in English and Spanish?

We take for granted the fact that feelings such as love, happiness, or pain are described with different words and expressions across languages. But are these differences in the ways we express these feelings in different ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Promising results from in vitro combination therapy against COVID-19

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden report promising results from an in vitro combination therapy against COVID-19. In a study published in EMBO Molecular Medicine, the researchers show that a combination of remdesivir, ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Merkel fails in new curbs bid as virus infections stabilise

Chancellor Angela Merkel on Monday failed to push through additional curbs to combat the coronavirus, as she said ongoing restrictions have helped to halt a runaway rise in infection numbers.

Parkinson's & Movement disorders

Mimicking brain cells to understand Parkinson's

A device that mimics the brain cells affected by Parkinson's disease could help find new treatments for the condition. The device is described in the Elsevier journal Organs-on-a-Chip. "We have created human neurons that ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Why our obsession with happy endings can lead to bad decisions

"All's well that ends well," wrote William Shakespeare over 400 years ago. The words may still seem to ring true today, but turns out they don't. We have just busted the old myth in a recent brain imaging experiment, published ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Study examines local perceptions of Chagas disease in Bolivia

A new study examines local perceptions of Chagas disease in a region where the infectious agent is endemic. The results underline the need to take social and cultural factors into account in campaigns designed to curb infectious ...

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Culture

Culture (Latin: cultura, lit. "cultivation") is a term that has many different inter-related meanings. For example, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. However, the word "culture" is most commonly used in three basic senses:

When the concept first emerged in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe, it connoted a process of cultivation or improvement, as in agriculture or horticulture. In the nineteenth century, it came to refer first to the betterment or refinement of the individual, especially through education, and then to the fulfillment of national aspirations or ideals. In the mid-nineteenth century, some scientists used the term "culture" to refer to a universal human capacity. For the German nonpositivist sociologist Georg Simmel, culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history".

In the twentieth century, "culture" emerged as a concept central to anthropology, encompassing all human phenomena that are not purely results of human genetics. Specifically, the term "culture" in American anthropology had two meanings: (1) the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and (2) the distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively. Following World War II, the term became important, albeit with different meanings, in other disciplines such as cultural studies, organizational psychology and management studies.[citation needed]

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