Neuroscience

Back pain can be better localized using a newly developed technique

Working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic has taken a toll on the health of many and led to increased reports of low back pain. Low back pain is the most common musculoskeletal problem that requires medical attention—an ...

Neuroscience

The promise of regenerative medicine to treat chronic pain

The use of regenerative medicine to lessen chronic pain holds enormous potential, and the body of evidence to support the practice is growing, said Alexios Carayannopoulos, DO, MPH, DABPMR, chief of the departments of physical ...

Medical research

Drug cocktail reduces aging-associated disc degeneration

Chronic back pain affects upwards of 15 million adults in the US, racking up billions in healthcare costs and lost work days. Degeneration of the discs that cushion and support vertebrae, a common occurrence of aging, is ...

Medical research

Like patching a flat tire: New fix heals herniated discs

A new two-step technique to repair herniated discs uses hyaluronic acid gel to re-inflate the disc and collagen gel to seal the hole, essentially repairing ruptured discs like you'd repair a flat tire.

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DLG4

PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein 95) also known as SAP-90 (synapse-associated protein 90) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DLG4 (disks large homolog 4) gene.

PSD-95 is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family. With PSD-93 it is recruited into the same NMDA receptor and potassium channel clusters. These two MAGUK proteins may interact at postsynaptic sites to form a multimeric scaffold for the clustering of receptors, ion channels, and associated signaling proteins.

PSD-95 is the best studied member of the MAGUK-family of PDZ domain-containing proteins. Like all MAGUK-family proteins, its basic structure includes three PDZ domains, an SH3 domain, and a guanylate kinase-like domain (GK) connected by disordered linker regions. It is almost exclusively located in the post synaptic density of neurons, and is involved in anchoring synaptic proteins. Its direct and indirect binding partners include neuroligin, NMDA receptors, AMPA receptors, and potassium channels.

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