News tagged with dna

Related topics: genes · protein · cells · genome · chromosomes

Improving radiotherapy for brain cancers

Dr Ross Carruthers has recently been awarded a CRUK Clinican Scientist Fellowship. A consultant radiation oncologist, now based at the University of Glasgow, he plans to investigate DNA damage response mechanisms in glioblastoma, ...

Jun 21, 2017
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Epigenetics could help diagnose different types of cleft

Cleft lip and/or palate are common birth defects and affect around 15 in every 10,000 births in Europe. New research by the University of Bristol from the largest study of cleft lip and/or palate in the world, the Cleft Collective, ...

Jun 15, 2017
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Mysterious gene transcripts after cancer therapy

Tumor suppressor genes protect cells from malignant transformation. If they are turned off as a result of chemical modifications in DNA, called epigenetic labels, this contributes to the development of cancer. As opposed ...

Jun 12, 2017
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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses. The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information. DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints or a recipe, or a code, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules. The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information.

Chemically, DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by ester bonds. These two strands run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called bases. It is the sequence of these four bases along the backbone that encodes information. This information is read using the genetic code, which specifies the sequence of the amino acids within proteins. The code is read by copying stretches of DNA into the related nucleic acid RNA, in a process called transcription.

Within cells, DNA is organized into X-shaped structures called chromosomes. These chromosomes are duplicated before cells divide, in a process called DNA replication. Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi, and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus and some of their DNA in the mitochondria (animals and plants) and chloroplasts (plants only). Prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) however, store their DNA in the cell's cytoplasm. Within the chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA

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