Inflammatory disorders

Medication linked to increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease

Medications that target tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a protein involved in inflammation, have revolutionized the management of certain autoimmune diseases, but paradoxically, these agents might provoke the development ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Study compares effectiveness of biologics in psoriasis treatment

(HealthDay)—For patients with psoriasis, ustekinumab has the highest effectiveness over five years of treatment and adalimumab and ustekinumab more often reach a 75 percent reduction in Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Ixekizumab efficacious for psoriasis over 60 weeks

(HealthDay)—The benefits of ixekizumab in the treatment of psoriasis extend to 60 weeks, according to a study published online June 8 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Ustekinumab more effective than TNF-alpha inhibitors in psoriasis

(HealthDay)—For patients with psoriasis, ustekinumab is more effective than tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

Arthritis & Rheumatism

Study compares hospitalized infection risk for biologics in RA

(HealthDay)—For patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with prior biologic exposure, the risk of hospitalized infection is increased with etanercept, infliximab, and rituximab versus abatacept, according to a study published ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

New drug can clear all psoriasis symptoms

A University of Manchester led trial of a new psoriasis drug has resulted in 40 percent of people showing a complete clearance of psoriatic plaques after 12 weeks of treatment and over 90 percent showing improvement.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Secukinumab effective in moderate-to-severe psoriasis

(HealthDay)—For patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, the fully human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, secukinumab, is effective, according to research published online July 9 in the New England Journal ...

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Etanercept (trade name Enbrel) is a drug that treats autoimmune diseases by interfering with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a part of the immune system) by acting as a TNF inhibitor. Pfizer describes in a SEC filing that the drug is used to treat rheumatoid, juvenile rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, plaque psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. Sales reached record $3.3 billion in 2010.

Etanercept is a fusion protein produced through expression of recombinant DNA. That is, it is a product of a DNA "construct" engineered to link the human gene for soluble TNF receptor 2 to the gene for the Fc component of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). Expression of the construct produces a continuous protein "fusing" TNF receptor 2 to IgG1. Production of Etanercept is accomplished by the large-scale culturing of cells that have been "cloned" to express this recombinant DNA construct.

The prototypic fusion protein was first synthesized and shown to be highly active and unusually stable as a modality for blockade of TNF in vivo in the early 1990s by Bruce A. Beutler, an academic researcher then at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and his colleagues. These investigators also patented the protein, selling all rights to its use to Immunex, a biotechnology company that was acquired by Amgen in 2002.

It is a large molecule, with a molecular weight of 150 kDa., that binds to TNFα and decreases its role in disorders involving excess inflammation in humans and other animals, including autoimmune diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and, potentially, in a variety of other disorders mediated by excess TNFα.

This therapeutic potential is based on the fact that TNF-alpha is the "master regulator" of the inflammatory response in many organ systems.

In North America, etanercept is co-marketed by Amgen and Pfizer under the trade name Enbrel in two separate formulations, one in powder form, the other as a pre-mixed liquid. Wyeth is the sole marketer of Enbrel outside of North America excluding Japan where Takeda Pharmaceuticals markets the drug.

Etanercept is an example of a protein-based drug created using the tools of biotechnology and conceived through an understanding afforded by modern cell biology.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA