Pediatrics

2009-2015 saw breastfeeding up for most races/ethnicities

(HealthDay)—From 2009 to 2015, there was improvement in breastfeeding rates in most race/ethnicity groups, although disparities between black and white infants widened, according to a study published online Oct. 14 in JAMA ...

Immunology

CDC: Asthma visit rates decreased from 2001 to 2016

(HealthDay)—Asthma is a common reason for physician visits, although the rate of asthma visits decreased from 2001 through 2016, according to a report published Sept. 20 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Suicide risk factors vary by ethnic group

Approximately 8.3 million adults in the United States reported thinking about suicide last year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While thoughts and deeds are clearly different, University of Houston ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Sound-shape associations depend on early visual experiences

Data from individuals with different types of severe visual impairment suggest that the associations we make between sounds and shapes—a "smooth" b or a "spiky" k—may form during a sensitive period of visual development ...

page 1 from 20

Ethnic group

An ethnic group is a group of humans whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage that is real or presumed.

Ethnic identity is further marked by the recognition from others of a group's distinctiveness and the recognition of common cultural, linguistic, religious, behavioural ,, as indicators of contrast to other groups.

Ethnicity is an important means through which people can identify themselves. According to "Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science, politics, and reality", a conference organised by Statistics Canada and the United States Census Bureau (April 1–3, 1992), "Ethnicity is a fundamental factor in human life: it is a phenomenon inherent in human experience." However, many social scientists, like anthropologists Fredrik Barth and Eric Wolf, do not consider ethnic identity to be universal. They regard ethnicity as a product of specific kinds of inter-group interactions, rather than an essential quality inherent to human groups. Processes that result in the emergence of such identification are called ethnogenesis. Members of an ethnic group, on the whole, claim cultural continuities over time. Historians and cultural anthropologists have documented, however, that often many of the values, practices, and norms that imply continuity with the past are of relatively recent invention.

According to Thomas Hylland Eriksen, until recently the study of ethnicity was dominated by two distinct debates. One is between "primordialism" and "instrumentalism". In the primordialist view, the participant perceives ethnic ties collectively, as an externally given, even coercive, social bond. The instrumentalist approach, on the other hand, treats ethnicity primarily as an ad-hoc element of a political strategy, used as a resource for interest groups for achieving secondary goals such as, for instance, an increase in wealth, power or status. This debate is still an important point of reference in Political science, although most scholars' approaches fall between the two poles.

The second debate is between "constructivism" and "essentialism". Constructivists view national and ethnic identities as the product of historical forces, often recent, even when the identities are presented as old. Essentialists view such identities as ontological categories defining social actors, and not themselves the result of social action.

According to Eriksen, these debates have been superseded, especially in anthropology, by scholars' attempts to respond to increasingly politicised forms of self-representation by members of different ethnic groups and nations. This is in the context of debates over multiculturalism in countries, such as the United States and Canada, which have large immigrant populations from many different cultures, and post-colonialism in the Caribbean and South Asia.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA