Sports medicine & Kinesiology

Rise in testosterone level boosts young women's running capacity

A rise in the level of the male hormone testosterone significantly boosts young physically active women's capacity to run for longer, reveals the first study of its kind, published online in the British Journal of Sports ...

Surgery

Urinary catheters not needed for joint replacement surgery

Patients undergoing joint replacement under epidural anesthesia have no increased risk for postoperative adverse genitourinary (GU) complications by skipping preoperative indwelling urinary catheters, according to a study ...

Obstetrics & gynaecology

What is the ideal age to have a child?

Despite increases in age at first birth over the past several decades in the United States, there is little research into how individuals conceptualize the ideal age to have a child.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Risk for developing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis up in IBD

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially male patients, have an increased risk for development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the Journal of Gastroenterology ...

Sports medicine & Kinesiology

Female athletes seek specialty care for concussion later than males

Female athletes seek specialty medical treatment later than male athletes for sports-related concussions (SRC), and this delay may cause them to experience more symptoms and longer recoveries. Researchers from the Sports ...

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Female

Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, which produces mobile ova (egg cells). The ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon, is produced by the male. A female individual cannot reproduce sexually without access to the gametes of a male (an exception is parthenogenesis). Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

There is no single genetic mechanism behind sex differences in different species and the existence of two sexes seems to have evolved multiple times independently in different evolutionary lineages. Other than the defining difference in the type of gamete produced, differences between males and females in one lineage cannot always be predicted by differences in another. The concept is not limited to animals; egg cells are produced by chytrids, diatoms, water moulds and land plants, among others. In land plants, female and male designate not only the egg- and sperm-producing organisms and structures, but also the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants.

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