Psychology & Psychiatry

When does the green monster of jealousy awake in people?

Adult heterosexual women and men are often jealous about completely different threats to their relationship. These differences in jealousy seem to establish themselves far sooner than people need them. The finding surprised ...

Medical research

Stem cells show gender differences in COVID-19 risk

With more than 125 million people infected and nearly 3 million dead, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the world in inconceivable ways. Adding to the challenge is that the patient condition varies widely, from the asymptomatic ...

Medical research

Medics should treat gender and sex differently

Patients' sex and gender are being confused by doctors at the risk of reducing the effectiveness of treatment, a group of senior medical researchers, led by the University of St Andrews, has concluded.

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Gender

Gender comprises a range of differences between men and women, extending from the biological to the social. At the biological level, men and women are typically distinguished by the presence of a Y-chromosome in male cells, and its absence in female cells. At the social level, however, there is debate regarding the extent to which the various biological differences necessitate differences in social gender roles and gender identity, which has been defined as "an individual's self-conception as being male or female, as distinguished from actual biological sex."

The word "gender" has several definitions. Colloquially, it is used interchangeably with "sex" to denote the condition of being male or female, but in the social sciences it refers to specifically social differences, such as but not limited to gender identity. More recently, it has been equated with "sexual orientation" and "identity" (especially LGBT sexuality).[citation needed] People whose gender identity feels incongruent with their biological sex may refer to themselves as "intergender".

Many languages have a system of grammatical gender, a type of noun class system—nouns may be classified as masculine or feminine (for example Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and French) and may also have a neuter grammatical gender (for example Sanskrit, German, Polish, and the Scandinavian languages). In such languages, this is essentially a convention, which may have little or no connection to the meaning of the words. Likewise, a wide variety of phenomena have characteristics termed gender, by analogy with male and female bodies (such as the gender of connectors and fasteners) or due to societal norms.

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