Gastroenterology

Belonging while battling bowel disease

Dealing with chronic conditions like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis can be challenging and sometimes embarrassing. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can cause diarrhea, stomach pain, weight loss and other symptoms. ...

Alzheimer's disease & dementia

Experts show how resilience to Alzheimer's differs by sex and gender

An international panel of experts led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), under the umbrella of the Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment, has produced ...

Medical research

New study finds systematic biases at play in clinical trials

Randomized controlled trials, or RCTs, are believed to be the best way to study the safety and efficacy of new treatments in clinical research. However, a recent study from Michigan State University found that people of color ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

First of its kind study shines light on LGBTQ+ farmer mental health

LGBTQ+ people involved in farm work are over three times more likely to experience depression and suicidal intent and about two and a half times more likely to experience anxiety than the general population. That's according ...

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Gender

Gender comprises a range of differences between men and women, extending from the biological to the social. At the biological level, men and women are typically distinguished by the presence of a Y-chromosome in male cells, and its absence in female cells. At the social level, however, there is debate regarding the extent to which the various biological differences necessitate differences in social gender roles and gender identity, which has been defined as "an individual's self-conception as being male or female, as distinguished from actual biological sex."

The word "gender" has several definitions. Colloquially, it is used interchangeably with "sex" to denote the condition of being male or female, but in the social sciences it refers to specifically social differences, such as but not limited to gender identity. More recently, it has been equated with "sexual orientation" and "identity" (especially LGBT sexuality).[citation needed] People whose gender identity feels incongruent with their biological sex may refer to themselves as "intergender".

Many languages have a system of grammatical gender, a type of noun class system—nouns may be classified as masculine or feminine (for example Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and French) and may also have a neuter grammatical gender (for example Sanskrit, German, Polish, and the Scandinavian languages). In such languages, this is essentially a convention, which may have little or no connection to the meaning of the words. Likewise, a wide variety of phenomena have characteristics termed gender, by analogy with male and female bodies (such as the gender of connectors and fasteners) or due to societal norms.

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