Psychology & Psychiatry

Gender 'nonconformity' takes mental toll on teens

(HealthDay)—American teens whose behavior, appearance or lifestyle do not conform to widely held views on what it is to be a "normal" male or female face a high risk for mental distress and drug abuse, new research warns.

Psychology & Psychiatry

The biological origins of sexual orientation and gender identity

Male? Female? The distinction is not always clear. Exploring the scientific evidence for the biological origins of sexual orientation and gender identity must continue to both enhance patient care and fight discrimination.

Attention deficit disorders

Why is ADHD more common in boys than girls?

About one in 20 children are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at some point during their school life. Interestingly, for every girl diagnosed, there are between three and seven boys who receive ...

Health

Why 'rapid-onset gender dysphoria' is bad science

A few decades ago, sexologist Ray Blanchard suggested that trans lesbians—trans women who are solely attracted to other women—were in fact men whose misguided heterosexuality led them to be aroused by the thought of being ...

Surgery

First ever data on number of gender confirmation surgeries

For the first time, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) is reporting on the number of gender confirmation surgeries in the United States. ASPS—the world's largest plastic surgery organization—found that more ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

It's all in the eyes: Women and men really do see things differently

Women and men look at faces and absorb visual information in different ways, which suggests there is a gender difference in understanding visual cues, according to a team of scientists that included psychologists from Queen ...

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Gender

Gender comprises a range of differences between men and women, extending from the biological to the social. At the biological level, men and women are typically distinguished by the presence of a Y-chromosome in male cells, and its absence in female cells. At the social level, however, there is debate regarding the extent to which the various biological differences necessitate differences in social gender roles and gender identity, which has been defined as "an individual's self-conception as being male or female, as distinguished from actual biological sex."

The word "gender" has several definitions. Colloquially, it is used interchangeably with "sex" to denote the condition of being male or female, but in the social sciences it refers to specifically social differences, such as but not limited to gender identity. More recently, it has been equated with "sexual orientation" and "identity" (especially LGBT sexuality).[citation needed] People whose gender identity feels incongruent with their biological sex may refer to themselves as "intergender".

Many languages have a system of grammatical gender, a type of noun class system—nouns may be classified as masculine or feminine (for example Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and French) and may also have a neuter grammatical gender (for example Sanskrit, German, Polish, and the Scandinavian languages). In such languages, this is essentially a convention, which may have little or no connection to the meaning of the words. Likewise, a wide variety of phenomena have characteristics termed gender, by analogy with male and female bodies (such as the gender of connectors and fasteners) or due to societal norms.

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