Medical research

A moderate dose of novel form of stress promotes longevity

A newly described form of stress called chromatin architectural defect, or chromatin stress, triggers in cells a response that leads to a longer life. Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and the Houston Methodist Research ...

Medical research

A tale of two proteins: The best and worst of metabolic adaptation

The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis is supported by multiple human epidemiological studies and animal studies. It states that the nutritional environment in early life makes people susceptible ...

Health

Scientists find thirdhand smoke affects cells in humans

Thirdhand smoke can damage epithelial cells in the respiratory system by stressing cells and causing them to fight for survival, a research team led by scientists at the University of California, Riverside, has found. The ...

Medications

New method divides patients with ulcerative colitis in groups

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have found a way of using gene expression conserved across species to divide patients with the inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis into two distinct groups. The findings ...

Oncology & Cancer

Researchers unlock mysteries of complex microRNA oncogenes

MicroRNAs are tiny molecules of nucleic acid that control gene expression, acting like a dimmer switch to tone down gene output at key positions in the network of information that governs a cell's function. MicroRNAs are ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

New knowledge on the development of asthma

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have studied which genes are expressed in overactive immune cells in mice with asthma-like inflammation of the airways. Their results, which are published in the journal Immunity, ...

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as rRNA genes or tRNA genes, the product is a functional RNA.

Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. Gene regulation may also serve as a substrate for evolutionary change, since control of the timing, location, and amount of gene expression can have a profound effect on the functions (actions) of the gene in the organism.

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