Neuroscience

Proteins stand up to nerve cell regression

A study by Duke-NUS Medical School has found that members of the multiprotein 'Integrator complex', known for its role in gene regulation, are crucial for healthy brain development in fruit flies. The findings have implications ...

Genetics

Researchers relate DNA methylation levels to obesity

DNA methylation is a mechanism that regulates whether genes are "on" or "off", and is influenced by hereditary and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle and nutritional habits.

Oncology & Cancer

Cancer cells' plasticity makes them harder to stop

When metastatic cancer cells need to avoid a threat, they simply reprogram themselves. Rice University scientists are beginning to get a handle on how they survive hostile environments.

Psychology & Psychiatry

Novel autism mouse model based on an epigenetic gene developed

The causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are diverse and to some extent, unknown. But without doubt, they are complex, layered and deeply nuanced. In a study published January 17, 2019 in Translational Psychiatry, researchers ...

Oncology & Cancer

Cancer: A mutation that breaks gene interplay in 3-D

Inside cells DNA is tightly wrapped around proteins and packed in a complex, 3-D structure called chromatin. Chromatin not only protects genetic material from damage, but also organizes the entire genome by regulating the ...

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Regulation of gene expression

Gene modulation redirects here. For information on therapeutic regulation of gene expression, see therapeutic gene modulation.

Regulation of gene expression (or gene regulation) includes the processes that cells and viruses use to turn the information in genes into gene products. Although a functional gene product may be an RNA or a protein, the majority of known mechanisms regulate protein coding genes. Any step of the gene's expression may be modulated, from DNA-RNA transcription to the post-translational modification of a protein.

Gene regulation is essential for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. The first discovered example of a gene regulation system was the lac operon, discovered by Jacques Monod, in which protein involved in lactose metabolism are expressed by E.coli only in the presence of lactose and absence of glucose.

Furthermore, gene regulation drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms where the different types of cells may possess different gene expression profiles though they all possess the same genome sequence.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA