Neuroscience

Brainstem neurons control both behaviour and misbehaviour

A recent study at the University of Helsinki reveals how gene control mechanisms define the identity of developing neurons in the brainstem. The researchers also showed that a failure in differentiation of the brainstem neurons ...

Genetics

Researchers identify master regulator genes of asthma

Researchers identify master regulator genes of asthma, provide new path forward in the study of asthma and the development of novel therapies. Identification of these master regulator genes provides a new path forward in ...

Immunology

St18 is a negative regulator of VEGF

Pro-inflammatory cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are known to activate NF-kB. NF-kB is a master regulator of inflammation and induces pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although ...

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Regulation of gene expression

Gene modulation redirects here. For information on therapeutic regulation of gene expression, see therapeutic gene modulation.

Regulation of gene expression (or gene regulation) includes the processes that cells and viruses use to turn the information in genes into gene products. Although a functional gene product may be an RNA or a protein, the majority of known mechanisms regulate protein coding genes. Any step of the gene's expression may be modulated, from DNA-RNA transcription to the post-translational modification of a protein.

Gene regulation is essential for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. The first discovered example of a gene regulation system was the lac operon, discovered by Jacques Monod, in which protein involved in lactose metabolism are expressed by E.coli only in the presence of lactose and absence of glucose.

Furthermore, gene regulation drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms where the different types of cells may possess different gene expression profiles though they all possess the same genome sequence.

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