Neuroscience

Neuroscientists now can read the mind of a fly

Northwestern University neuroscientists now can read the mind of a fly. They have developed a clever new tool that lights up active conversations between neurons during a behavior or sensory experience, such as smelling a ...

Medical research

Stem cells used to reattach teeth with new technique

A new approach to anchor teeth back in the jaw using stem cells has been developed and successfully tested in the laboratory for the first time by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

Neuroscience

When do newborns first feel cold?

Cold sensing neural circuits in newborn mice take around two weeks to become fully active, according to a new study.

Neuroscience

Protein movement in cells hints at greater mysteries

A new imaging technique that makes it possible to match motor proteins with the cargo they carry within a cell is upending a standard view of how cellular traffic reaches the correct destination. The research, which focuses ...

Neuroscience

In live brain function, researchers are finally seeing red

For years, green has been the most reliable hue for live brain imaging, but after using a new high-throughput screening method, researchers at the John B. Pierce Laboratory and the Yale School of Medicine, together with collaborators ...

Neuroscience

iTango: New technique studies neuromodulation in real time

When we think of neuronal communication, we often picture a single neuron releasing molecular neurotransmitters into a junction called a synapse where they stimulate another neuron. But sometimes, instead of crossing a synapse, ...

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Green fluorescent protein

The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is protein composed of 238 amino acids (26.9kDa), which exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to blue light. Although many other marine organisms have similar green fluorescent proteins, GFP traditionally refers to the protein first isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The GFP from A. victoria has a major excitation peak at a wavelength of 395 nm and a minor one at 475 nm. Its emission peak is at 509 nm which is in the lower green portion of the visible spectrum. The GFP from the sea pansy (Renilla reniformis) has a single major excitation peak at 498 nm. In cell and molecular biology, the GFP gene is frequently used as a reporter of expression. In modified forms it has been used to make biosensors, and many animals have been created that express GFP as a proof-of-concept that a gene can be expressed throughout a given organism. The GFP gene can be introduced into organisms and maintained in their genome through breeding, injection with a viral vector, or cell transformation. To date, the GFP gene has been introduced and expressed in many bacteria, yeast and other fungi, fish (such as zebrafish), plant, fly, and mammalian cells, including human. Martin Chalfie, Osamu Shimomura, and Roger Y. Tsien were awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry on 8 October 2008 for their discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein.

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