Psychology & Psychiatry

Health care professionals exhibit gender bias

(HealthDay)—Survey results show that health care professionals have implicit and explicit gender bias, according to a study published online July 5 in JAMA Network Open.

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Health effect

Health effects (or health impacts) are changes in health resulting from exposure to a source. Health effects are an important consideration in many areas, such as hygiene, pollution studies, workplace safety, nutrition and health sciences in general. Some of the major environmental sources of health effects are air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, noise pollution and over-illumination.

A non-stochastic or deterministic health effect has a severity that is dependent on dose and is believed to have a threshold level for which no effect is seen. Stochastic health effects occur by chance, generally occurring without a threshold level of dose, whose probability is proportional to the dose and whose severity is independent of the dose, such as cancer and genetic effects.

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