Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Estrogen treatment associated with reduced COVID deaths

A new paper in Family Practice, published by Oxford University Press, indicates that receiving hormone replacement therapy within six months of a recorded diagnosis of COVID-19 was associated with a reduction in mortality ...

Overweight & Obesity

Scientists study links between obesity, age and body chemistry

A team of Clemson University scientists is making inroads in understanding the relationship between certain enzymes that are normally produced in the body and their role in regulating obesity and controlling liver diseases.

Obstetrics & gynaecology

Menopause: HRT's brain-protecting effect may be overstated

Many women expect hot flushes, dry skin and night sweats when they reach the menopause. But the effect the menopause can have on the brain is rarely mentioned. This is something a recent Channel 4 documentary presented by ...

Medical research

New study shows how tumor cells use mitochondria to keep growing

Hormone therapy is often used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, but many patients develop resistance to hormone therapy, causing their disease to become more aggressive and potentially more ...

Obstetrics & gynaecology

Stress may be associated with fertility issues in women

Female rats exposed to a scream sound may have diminished ovarian reserve and reduced fertility, according to a small animal study published in the Endocrine Society's journal, Endocrinology.

Neuroscience

Researchers discover how hormones define brain sex differences

Sex hormones play an important role in shaping an animal's behavior, and their influence starts early. Early-life hormonal surges help shape the developing brain, establishing circuitry that will influence behavior for a ...

Obstetrics & gynaecology

Nature's way is best, even when it comes to IVF

Researchers from Melbourne IVF have conducted a literature review and performed a meta-analysis to determine which cycles—with or without natural hormone production—produce higher rates of success, i.e., live birth.

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Hormone

Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus") are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. It is essentially a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another. All multicellular organisms produce hormones; plant hormones are also called phytohormones. Hormones in animals are often transported in the blood. Cells respond to a hormone when they express a specific receptor for that hormone. The hormone binds to the receptor protein, resulting in the activation of a signal transduction mechanism that ultimately leads to cell type-specific responses.

Endocrine hormone molecules are secreted (released) directly into the bloodstream, while exocrine hormones (or ectohormones) are secreted directly into a duct, and from the duct they either flow into the bloodstream or they flow from cell to cell by diffusion in a process known as paracrine signalling.

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