Neuroscience

Interactive zebrafish brain

If zebrafish larvae used the internet, they might soon be able to download a map of their entire brain. "We're not at that point yet," explains Michael Kunst from the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology. "Nevertheless, our ...

Neuroscience

Raw or cooked: This is how we recognise food

Do we see a pear or an apple? The occipital cortex in our brain will activate itself to recognise it. A piece of bread or a nice plate of pasta with sauce? Another region will come into play, called the middle temporal gyrus. ...

Neuroscience

Researchers publish study on the flexibility of sensory perception

Hearing, sight, touch – our brain captures a wide range of distinct sensory stimuli and links them together. The brain has a kind of built-in filter function for this: sensory impressions are only integrated if it is necessary ...

Neuroscience

How the olfactory system affects memory

How sensory perception in the brain affects learning and memory processes is far from fully understood. Two neuroscientists at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) have discovered a new aspect of how the processing of odours impacts ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Feel like time is flying? Here's how to slow it down

Sometimes it seems as if life is passing us by. When we are children, time ambles by, with endless car journeys and summer holidays which seem to last forever. But as adults, time seems to speed up at a frightening rate, ...

Neuroscience

How education may stave off cognitive decline

Prefrontal brain regions linked to higher educational attainment are characterized by increased expression of genes involved in neurotransmission and immunity, finds a study of healthy older adults published in JNeurosci. ...

Radiology & Imaging

Smart speaker technology harnessed for hospital medical treatments

Smart speakers that are customarily used in your living room can be programmed to act as an aid to physicians in hospital operating rooms, according to new research presented today at the Society of Interventional Radiology's ...

Neuroscience

Neurofeedback helps to control learning success

Thanks to an interplay of inhibition and disinhibition of certain areas, our brain can always guarantee the processing of particularly important stimuli. Neuronal alpha-oscillations regulate the flow of information in certain ...

Neuroscience

How the brain reacts to loss of vision

If mice lose their vision immediately after birth due to a genetic defect, this has a considerable impact, both on the organisation of the cerebral cortex and on memory ability. This is the conclusion drawn by researchers ...

Neuroscience

Tuning arousal to boost information transmission in the brain

Columbia neural engineers discover a mechanism by which the locus coeruleus modulates information processing in the thalamus; their findings of how sensory information is encoded in the healthy brain may lead to new treatments ...

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Information processing

Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process which describes everything which happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information[citation needed]. Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender has actually chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has actually received) and transformation (saved effort of questioning - equivocation minus dissipation)[citation needed].

Within the field of cognitive psychology, information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking. It arose in the 1940s and 1950s. The essence of the approach is to see cognition as being essentially computational in nature, with mind being the software and the brain being the hardware. The information processing approach in psychology is closely allied to cognitivism in psychology and functionalism in philosophy although the terms are not quite synonymous. Information processing may be sequential or parallel, either of which may be centralized or decentralized (distributed). The parallel distributed processing approach of the mid-1980s became popular under the name connectionism. In the early 1950s Friedrich Hayek was ahead of his time when he posited the idea of spontaneous order in the brain arising out of decentralized networks of simple units (neurons). However, Hayek is rarely cited in the literature of connectionism.

In the 1970s, Abraham Moles and Frieder Nake were among the first to establish and analyze links between information processing and aesthetics.

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