Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Measles vaccination: 'All for one and one for all'

Measles was declared eradicated in the United States in 2000, but has reappeared in recent months in the form of outbreaks in several states. Of the 704 people in the U.S. infected with this highly contagious virus in 2019, ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Volume overload present in patients on peritoneal dialysis

Volume overload is present before the start of peritoneal dialysis (PD), and is associated with risk of death, according to a study published online May 23 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

Medications

Medication nonadherence common in patients with T2DM

(HealthDay)—Routine urine samples can be used to test for medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in the June issue of Diabetes Care.

Medical research

Scientists engineer vascularized kidney tissue

Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) researchers have shown the feasibility of bioengineering vascularized functional renal tissues for kidney regeneration, developing a partial augmentation strategy that ...

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Drug

A drug, broadly speaking, is any substance that, when absorbed into the body of a living organism, alters normal bodily function. There is no single, precise definition, as there are different meanings in drug control law, government regulations, medicine, and colloquial usage.

In pharmacology, a drug is "a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being." Drugs may be prescribed for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.

Recreational drugs are chemical substances that affect the central nervous system, such as opioids or hallucinogens. They may be used for perceived beneficial effects on perception, consciousness, personality, and behavior. Some drugs can cause addiction and/or habituation.

Drugs are usually distinguished from endogenous biochemicals by being introduced from outside the organism.[citation needed] For example, insulin is a hormone that is synthesized in the body; it is called a hormone when it is synthesized by the pancreas inside the body, but if it is introduced into the body from outside, it is called a drug.[citation needed] Many natural substances, such as beers, wines, and psychoactive mushrooms, blur the line between food and recreational drugs, as when ingested they affect the functioning of both mind and body and some substances normally considered drugs such as DMT (Dimethyltryptamine) are actually produced by the human body in trace amounts.

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