Psychology & Psychiatry

Study finds men most attractive with heavy-stubble

(Medical Xpress)—A research team from the Evolution and Ecology Research Centre at the University of New South Wales has found that women find men most attractive when they have approximately ten days of beard growth. In ...

Medical research

Estrogen discovery could shed new light on fertility problems

Estrogen produced in the brain is necessary for ovulation in monkeys, according to researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison who have upended the traditional understanding of the hormonal cascade that leads to release ...

Neuroscience

Menstruation doesn't change how your brain works—period

A new study published in Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience today is setting out to change the way we think about the menstrual cycle. While it's often been assumed that anyone who's menstruating isn't working at top mental ...

Health

Study finds PCBs disrupt pregnancy

PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and other environmental toxicants can disrupt the reproductive cycle in women, according to a new long-term study led by UAlbany researchers.

Neuroscience

Hippocampus in women changes in sync with hormones

Although it has already been known for some time that the brain does not remain rigid in its structure even in adulthood, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences made a surprising discovery: ...

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Menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle is a cycle of physiological changes that occurs in fertile females. Overt menstruation (where there is blood flow from the vagina) occurs primarily in humans and close evolutionary relatives such as chimpanzees. Females of other species of placental mammal undergo estrous cycles, in which the endometrium is completely reabsorbed by the animal (covert menstruation) at the end of its reproductive cycle. This article focuses on the human menstrual cycle.

The menstrual cycle, under the control of the endocrine system, is necessary for reproduction. It may be divided into three distinct phases: menstruation, the follicular phase and the luteal phase. Ovulation defines the transition from the follicular phase to the luteal phase. The length of each phase varies from woman to woman and cycle to cycle, though the average menstrual cycle is 28 days. Hormonal contraception interferes with the normal hormonal changes with the aim of preventing reproduction.

Stimulated by gradually increasing amounts of estrogen in the follicular phase, menses slow then stop, and the lining of the uterus thickens. Follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay of hormones, and after several days one or occasionally two become dominant (non-dominant follicles atrophy and die). Approximately mid-cycle, 24-36 hours after the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum, or egg in an event called ovulation. After ovulation, the egg only lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization while the remains of the dominant follicle in the ovary become a corpus luteum; this body has a primary function of producing large amounts of progesterone. Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium (uterine lining) changes to prepare for potential implantation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy. If implantation does not occur within approximately two weeks, the corpus luteum will involute, causing sharp drops in levels of both progesterone and estrogen. These hormone drops cause the uterus to shed its lining in a process termed menstruation.

In the menstrual cycle, changes occur in the female reproductive system as well as other systems (which lead to breast tenderness or mood changes, for example). A woman's first menstruation is termed menarche, and occurs typically around age 12. The end of a woman's reproductive phase is called the menopause, which commonly occurs somewhere between the ages of 45 and 55.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA