Medical research

How microglia contribute to Alzheimer's disease

One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is a reduction in the firing of some neurons in the brain, which contributes to the cognitive decline that patients experience. A new study from MIT shows how a type of cells called ...

Neuroscience

Lymphatics help 'seed' early brain cells in zebrafish

During the embryonic stage of brain development, some neurons and synapses form properly and connect, but others don't, causing some parts and pieces to be discarded. This leaves behind dead or dying cells and requires the ...

Neuroscience

Repurposing cancer drug to treat neuroinflammation

The repurposing of FDA-approved drugs for alternative diseases is a faster way of bringing new treatments into the clinic. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have repurposed a cancer drug for treatment of neuroinflammatory ...

Medical research

When neurons behave like a double-edged sword

A new study reports that immune cell responses to bacteria affect the intrinsic excitability of rat neuronal subtypes differently. The findings have implications for neural network control, including irregularities that lead ...

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Microglia

Microglia are a type of glial cell that are the resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, and thus act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia constitute 20% of the total glial cell population within the brain.[citation needed] Microglia (and astrocytes) are distributed in large non-overlapping regions throughout the brain and spinal cord. Microglia are constantly scavenging the CNS for damaged neurons, plaques, and infectious agents. The brain and spinal cord are considered "immune privileged" organs in that they are separated from the rest of the body by a series of endothelial cells known as the blood-brain barrier, which prevents most infections from reaching the vulnerable nervous tissue. In the case where infectious agents are directly introduced to the brain or cross the blood-brain barrier, microglial cells must react quickly to decrease inflammation and destroy the infectious agents before they damage the sensitive neural tissue. Due to the unavailability of antibodies from the rest of the body (few antibodies are small enough to cross the blood brain barrier), microglia must be able to recognize foreign bodies, swallow them, and act as antigen-presenting cells activating T-cells. Since this process must be done quickly to prevent potentially fatal damage, microglia are extremely sensitive to even small pathological changes in the CNS. They achieve this sensitivity in part by having unique potassium channels that respond to even small changes in extracellular potassium.

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