Medical research

Protein influences regeneration of vascular cells

Through their basic research, physicians at the Heart Center of the University Hospital Bonn have discovered how the communication between individual cells can be influenced with the help of a specific protein. These findings ...

Medical research

Exercise induces secretion of biomarkers into sweat

A new study shows that in addition to blood, endurance exercise induces changes in sweat biomolecule levels. These findings lay the groundwork for the development of future noninvasive exercise monitoring systems that utilize ...

Medical research

Silver-plated gold nanostars detect early cancer biomarkers

Biomedical engineers at Duke University have engineered a method for simultaneously detecting the presence of multiple specific microRNAs in RNA extracted from tissue samples without the need for labeling or target amplification. ...

Genetics

Releasing molecular 'brake' kick-starts immune cell function

The immune system's ability to marshal specialized cells to fight off infection relies in part on tiny molecules called microRNAs, which act as a release for the "brakes" that keep cells dormant until needed, according to ...

Oncology & Cancer

Researchers study radiation resistance in brain cancer cells

In a vertical climb to avoid collision with a towering mountain, a plane ejects cargo to gain altitude. Investigators at the University of Minnesota showed that cancer cells perform similar feats in escaping the killing effects ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Tiny RNA that should attack coronavirus diminish with age, disease

A group of tiny RNA that should attack the virus causing COVID-19 when it tries to infect the body are diminished with age and chronic health problems, a decrease that likely helps explain why older individuals and those ...

Oncology & Cancer

Novel therapeutic targets in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC) is the second most common diagnosed malignancy in the United States, with approximately 700,000 new cases each year. Cumulative exposure to ultraviolet light is the primary environmental ...

Oncology & Cancer

MicroRNA exhibit unexpected function in driving cancer

Researchers long thought that only one strand of a double-stranded microRNA can silence genes. Though recent evidence has challenged that dogma, it's unclear what the other strand does, and how the two may be involved in ...

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MicroRNA

In genetics, microRNAs (miRNA) are single-stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides in length, which regulate gene expression. miRNAs are encoded by genes from whose DNA they are transcribed but miRNAs are not translated into protein (i.e. they are non-coding RNAs); instead each primary transcript (a pri-miRNA) is processed into a short stem-loop structure called a pre-miRNA and finally into a functional miRNA. Mature miRNA molecules are partially complementary to one or more messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, and their main function is to down-regulate gene expression. They were first described in 1993 by Lee and colleagues in the Victor Ambros lab , yet the term microRNA was only introduced in 2001 in a set of three articles in Science.

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