Radiology & Imaging

Study finds variations in quantitative MRI scanners' measurements

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in medicine to detect, diagnose and treat diseases such as cancer, while relying on experts' interpretation of images. Quantitative MRI, which obtains numerical measurements ...

Neuroscience

Mouse brain imaged from the microscopic to the macroscopic level

Researchers at the University of Chicago and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have leveraged existing advanced X-ray microscopy techniques to bridge the gap between MRI (magnetic resonance ...

Neuroscience

A new understanding of how the human brain controls the hands

Understanding how the brain controls certain actions—such picking up a knife in the correct way—is important for many reasons. One of these is working towards the development of brain-computer interfaces that may help ...

Oncology & Cancer

An important step towards live imaging in proton therapy

Researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) want to build the world's first prototype that tracks moving tumors with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in real time during proton therapy. They are combining ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Brain activity can predict resilience against post-traumatic stress

Why does one person develop post-traumatic symptoms after a stressful event while another does not? Police officers with higher activity in the anterior frontal brain area appear to respond more resiliently to a traumatic ...

Radiology & Imaging

Researchers develop low-cost, portable brain imaging scanner

When it comes to brain scans for assessing head trauma, detecting brain cancer, and performing numerous other tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best option, but MRI scanners are costly, require special infrastructure, ...

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), is primarily a medical imaging technique most commonly used in radiology to visualize the internal structure and function of the body. MRI provides much greater contrast between the different soft tissues of the body than computed tomography (CT) does, making it especially useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and oncological (cancer) imaging. Unlike CT, it uses no ionizing radiation, but uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body. Radio frequency (RF) fields are used to systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, causing the hydrogen nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field detectable by the scanner. This signal can be manipulated by additional magnetic fields to build up enough information to construct an image of the body.:36

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a relatively new technology. The first MR image was published in 1973 and the first cross-sectional image of a living mouse was published in January 1974. The first studies performed on humans were published in 1977. By comparison, the first human X-ray image was taken in 1895.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging was developed from knowledge gained in the study of nuclear magnetic resonance. In its early years the technique was referred to as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). However, as the word nuclear was associated in the public mind with ionizing radiation exposure it is generally now referred to simply as MRI. Scientists still use the term NMRI when discussing non-medical devices operating on the same principles. The term Magnetic Resonance Tomography (MRT) is also sometimes used.

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