Psychology & Psychiatry

If you expect an itch, you'll get an itch

If you expect something is going to itch, the itching really does get worse. Leiden health psychologist Danielle Bartels has proved the effect of negative expectations on itching. What's remarkable is that this nocebo effect ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Our expectations shape our health

Positive expectations about a medicine may help it to work more effectively, even if you tell patients about this placebo effect. The reverse, the nocebo effect, works in the same way. Health psychologist Stefanie Meeuwis ...


Men are fooled by placebo more often than women

It was not until the 1990s that researchers fully began to include both genders in health research. Sara Magelssen Vambheim has contributed with valuable new insights in her study of gender differences in pain experiences.