Medications

Why do some cancer treatments stop working?

Cancer treatments can work in lots of different ways, aiming to kill tumor cells or keep them under control. Ideally they cause tumors to shrink, but drugs can also be considered successful if they stop tumors growing.

Autism spectrum disorders

High levels of estrogen in the womb linked to autism

Scientist have identified a link between exposure to high levels of oestrogen sex hormones in the womb and the likelihood of developing autism. The findings are published today in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.

Diabetes

A new insight of the protective role of estrogens in diabetes

Epidemiological data indicate an explosion of type 2 diabetes cases for women after menopause. What is responsible for that? The surprisingly protective role of oestrogens, highlighted by the fact that a woman undergoing ...

Medical research

Oestrogen causes neuroblastoma cells to mature into neurons

The female sex hormone oestrogen can perform an important role in neuroblastoma, a form of cancer mainly affecting young children. In laboratory experiments, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden demonstrate that ...

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Estrogen

Estrogens (AmE), oestrogens (BE), or œstrogens, are a group of compounds named for their importance in the estrous cycle of humans and other animals. They are the primary female sex hormones. Natural estrogens are steroid hormones, while some synthetic ones are non-steroidal. Their name comes from the Greek words estrus/οίστρος = sexual desire + gen/γόνο = to generate.

Estrogens are synthesized in all vertebrates as well as some insects. Their presence in both vertebrates and insects suggests that estrogenic sex hormones have an ancient evolutionary history.

Estrogens are used as part of some oral contraceptives, in estrogen replacement therapy for postmenopausal women, and in hormone replacement therapy for trans women.

Like all steroid hormones, estrogens readily diffuse across the cell membrane. Once inside the cell, they bind to and activate estrogen receptors which in turn modulate the expression of many genes. Additionally, estrogens have been shown to activate a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR30.

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