Autism spectrum disorders

High levels of estrogen in the womb linked to autism

Scientist have identified a link between exposure to high levels of oestrogen sex hormones in the womb and the likelihood of developing autism. The findings are published today in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.

Medical research

Grapefruit diet almost cost woman her leg

A woman who ate a grapefruit each day almost had to have her leg amputated because of a dangerous blood clot, according to an unusual case study reported in the Lancet.

Medical research

Low-dose HRT patches carry less risk of stroke than tablets

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) skin patches containing low doses of oestrogen carry less risk of stroke than oral therapy and may represent a safer alternative to tablets, suggests a study published in the British Medical ...

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Estrogen

Estrogens (AmE), oestrogens (BE), or œstrogens, are a group of compounds named for their importance in the estrous cycle of humans and other animals. They are the primary female sex hormones. Natural estrogens are steroid hormones, while some synthetic ones are non-steroidal. Their name comes from the Greek words estrus/οίστρος = sexual desire + gen/γόνο = to generate.

Estrogens are synthesized in all vertebrates as well as some insects. Their presence in both vertebrates and insects suggests that estrogenic sex hormones have an ancient evolutionary history.

Estrogens are used as part of some oral contraceptives, in estrogen replacement therapy for postmenopausal women, and in hormone replacement therapy for trans women.

Like all steroid hormones, estrogens readily diffuse across the cell membrane. Once inside the cell, they bind to and activate estrogen receptors which in turn modulate the expression of many genes. Additionally, estrogens have been shown to activate a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR30.

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