Vaccination

Polio vaccine in the crossfire of misinformation

As scientists around the world rush to find a vaccine to stem the spread of COVID-19, another deadly disease, polio, has become the latest target of misinformation campaigns online.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

COVID-19 death toll unacceptably high: WHO

The COVID-19 weekly death toll of around 50,000 lives is unacceptably high, the World Health Organization said Friday as the one million fatalities landmark approaches.

Medical research

Lancet boosts review process after COVID study retraction

The prestigious Lancet medical journal said it is bolstering its scientific review process after being forced to retract a study into the effects of an anti-arthritis drug on COVID-19 patients.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Europe imposes fresh curbs as global cases top 30 million

Large parts of Europe on Friday geared up for broad new restrictions to stop the coronavirus and Israel enforced a second nationwide shutdown, as infections worldwide topped the 30-million mark.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Coronavirus cases top 30 million worldwide

The number of coronavirus cases registered worldwide topped 30 million on Thursday, according to an AFP tally based on official sources.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

WHO warns of 'alarming' virus spread in Europe

The World Health Organization on Thursday warned of "alarming rates of transmission" of Covid-19 across Europe and cautioned against shortening quarantine periods as countries in the region scrambled to find ways to reduce ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Understanding social distancing and microbial health

Social distancing is a key component of the expert-recommended strategy to reduce the spread of COVID-19. According to the World Health Organization, the SARS-CoV-2 virus passes from person to person primarily through saliva ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

'Wake-up' call in Europe as virus surges back

The World Health Organization on Thursday warned of "alarming rates of transmission" of Covid-19 across Europe and cautioned against shortening quarantine periods as countries in the region scrambled to find ways to reduce ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

WHO Europe chief urges nations to keep up COVID quarantines

The World Health Organization's European director warned national governments Thursday against reducing the quarantine period for people potentially exposed to the coronavirus, even as he acknowledged that COVID-19 "fatigue" ...

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Organism

In biology, an organism is any living system (such as animal, plant, fungus, or micro-organism). In at least some form, all organisms are capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homeostasis as a stable whole. An organism may either be unicellular (single-celled) or be composed of, as in humans, many billions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs. The term multicellular (many-celled) describes any organism made up of more than one cell.

The terms "organism" (Greek ὀργανισμός - organismos, from Ancient Greek ὄργανον - organon "organ, instrument, tool") first appeared in the English language in 1701 and took on its current definition by 1834 (Oxford English Dictionary).

Scientific classification in biology considers organisms synonymous with life on Earth. Based on cell type, organisms may be divided into the prokaryotic and eukaryotic groups. The prokaryotes represent two separate domains, the Bacteria and Archaea. Eukaryotic organisms, with a membrane-bounded cell nucleus, also contain organelles, namely mitochondria and (in plants) plastids, generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria. Fungi, animals and plants are examples of species that are eukaryotes.

More recently a clade, Neomura, has been proposed, which groups together the Archaea and Eukarya. Neomura is thought to have evolved from Bacteria, more specifically from Actinobacteria.

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