Ophthalmology

Retinal stem cell patch sees progress

A retinal stem cell patch developed through a collaboration of researchers at UC Santa Barbara, University of Southern California and California Institute of Technology continues to make progress in its bid to secure approval ...

Neuroscience

An imaging device for seeing the biochemistry of vision

The biochemistry of vision is a complex process. The molecules supporting the visual pigments that allow us to see our surrounding reality have remained essentially invisible for scientists for a long time. The team led by ...

Health

EU bans cancer threat chemicals in tattoo ink

An EU ban on tattoo ink and permanent make-up containing chemicals feared to cause cancers or other health risks went into effect on Tuesday, officials said.

Health

Evidence links the carotenoid lutein with eye health

Although the carotenoid lutein and its related form called zeaxanthin have been associated with eye health for some time, the amount that provides benefit has yet to be quantified.

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Pigment

A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light.

Many materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them ideal for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures.

For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken.

Pigments are used for coloring paint, ink, plastic, fabric, cosmetics, food and other materials. Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colourants, usually ground into a fine powder. This powder is added to a vehicle (or binder), a relatively neutral or colorless material that suspends the pigment and gives the paint its adhesion.

The worldwide market for inorganic, organic and special pigments had a total volume of around 7.4 million tons in 2006. Asia has the highest rate on a quantity basis followed by Europe and North America. In 2006, a turnover of 17.6 billion US$ (13 billion euro) was reached mostly in Europe, followed by North America and Asia. The global demand on pigments was roughly US$ 20.5 billion in 2009, around 1.5-2% up from the previous year. It is predicted to increase in a stable growth rate in the coming years. The worldwide sales will increase to US$ 24.5 billion in 2015, and reach US$ 27.5 billion in 2018.

A distinction is usually made between a pigment, which is insoluble in the vehicle (resulting in a suspension), and a dye, which either is itself a liquid or is soluble in its vehicle (resulting in a solution). The term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of their solubility. A colorant can be both a pigment and a dye depending on the vehicle it is used in. In some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt. The resulting pigment is called a lake pigment.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA