News tagged with protein structure

Related topics: proceedings of the national academy of sciences · protein

Architecture of cellular control center mTORC2 elucidated

The protein complex mTORC2 controls cellular lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Researchers from the Biozentrum of the University of Basel and the ETH Zurich have now succeeded in deciphering the 3-D structure of this important ...

20 hours ago
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G-quadruplex regulates breast cancer-associated gene

For breast cancer, carrying protein CD44s, instead of CD44v, has a survival advantage. Researchers have now discovered a mechanism by which cells can regulate switching between the two proteins, opening options for the development ...

Dec 21, 2017
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Key synapse formation regulator identified

Professor Ko Jae-won at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) has conducted a study of the three-dimensional structure of proteins that regulate neuronal cell connections for the first time, and has identified ...

Aug 22, 2017
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Designed proteins to treat muscular dystrophy

The cell scaffolding holds muscle fibers together and protects them from damage. Individuals who suffer from muscular dystrophy often lack essential components in this cell scaffold. As a result, their muscles lack strength ...

Jun 28, 2017
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Protein structure

Proteins are an important class of biological macromolecules present in all biological organisms, made up of such elements as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur. All proteins are polymers of amino acids. The polymers, also known as polypeptides, consist of a sequence of 20 different L-α-amino acids, also referred to as residues. For chains under 40 residues the term peptide is frequently used instead of protein. To be able to perform their biological function, proteins fold into one, or more, specific spatial conformations, driven by a number of noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, ionic interactions, Van Der Waals forces and hydrophobic packing. In order to understand the functions of proteins at a molecular level, it is often necessary to determine the three dimensional structure of proteins. This is the topic of the scientific field of structural biology, that employs techniques such as X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy, to determine the structure of proteins.

A number of residues are necessary to perform a particular biochemical function, and around 40-50 residues appears to be the lower limit for a functional domain size. Protein sizes range from this lower limit to several thousand residues in multi-functional or structural proteins. However, the current estimate for the average protein length is around 300 residues. Very large aggregates can be formed from protein subunits, for example many thousand actin molecules assemble into a microfilament.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA

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