Medical research

Researchers uncovers promising cancer target for liposarcoma

A study conducted by a team of researchers from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore (CSI Singapore) at the National University of Singapore has revealed a close association between liposarcoma (LPS), a type of cancer ...

Oncology & Cancer

Cancer patients vaping in growing numbers

(HealthDay)—Vaping is gaining a foothold in an unlikely population: New research shows a growing number of cancer patients are using electronic cigarettes.

Oncology & Cancer

Cancer consultation low in noncurable pancreatic adenocarcinoma

(HealthDay)—Many patients with noncurable pancreatic adenocarcinoma do not have a specialized cancer consultation and most do not receive cancer-directed therapy, according to a study published online May 27 in CMAJ, the ...

Oncology & Cancer

Proton therapy for cancer lowers risk of side effects

Proton therapy results in fewer side effects than traditional X-ray radiation therapy for many cancer patients, according to a new study led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the Perelman School ...

Oncology & Cancer

Q&A: treating vocal cord cancer

DEAR MAYO CLINIC: My brother was diagnosed with stage 0 squamous cell carcinoma in situ in one of his vocal cords. He has been through several endoscopic surgeries, but the carcinoma keeps coming back. His doctors do not ...

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Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy (also radiotherapy or radiation oncology, sometimes abbreviated to XRT) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). Radiotherapy may be used for curative or adjuvant cancer treatment. It is used as palliative treatment (where cure is not possible and the aim is for local disease control or symptomatic relief) or as therapeutic treatment (where the therapy has survival benefit and it can be curative). Total body irradiation (TBI) is a radiotherapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant. Radiotherapy has several applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, severe thyroid eye disease, pterygium, pigmented villonodular synovitis, prevention of keloid scar growth, and prevention of heterotopic ossification. The use of radiotherapy in non-malignant conditions is limited partly by worries about the risk of radiation-induced cancers.

Radiotherapy is used for the treatment of malignant tumors (cancer), and may be used as the primary therapy. It is also common to combine radiotherapy with surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy or some mixture of the three. Most common cancer types can be treated with radiotherapy in some way. The precise treatment intent (curative, adjuvant, neoadjuvant, therapeutic, or palliative) will depend on the tumour type, location, and stage, as well as the general health of the patient.

Radiation therapy is commonly applied to the cancerous tumour. The radiation fields may also include the draining lymph nodes if they are clinically or radiologically involved with tumour, or if there is thought to be a risk of subclinical malignant spread. It is necessary to include a margin of normal tissue around the tumour to allow for uncertainties in daily set-up and internal tumor motion. These uncertainties can be caused by internal movement (for example, respiration and bladder filling) and movement of external skin marks relative to the tumour position.

To spare normal tissues (such as skin or organs which radiation must pass through in order to treat the tumour), shaped radiation beams are aimed from several angles of exposure to intersect at the tumour, providing a much larger absorbed dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA