Oncology & Cancer

Scientists explore potential new treatments for glioblastoma

A new approach to treating the most malignant type of brain cancer—glioblastoma—has shown strong promise in pre-clinical settings, raising hopes of increasing current average survival rates beyond 18 months.

Cardiology

Machine learning uses lung cancer scans to predict heart damage

As patients with lung cancer live longer, the risk of long-term cardiac side effects of radiation therapy has been increasing, despite advances that reduce the radiation dose to the heart. New research uses machine learning ...

Oncology & Cancer

Deep learning shows promise for soft tissue sarcoma management

Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) represent a diverse group of tumors that pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In a recent review published in the journal Meta-Radiology, a team of researchers from The Second ...

Oncology & Cancer

Video: Improvements in prostate surgery

There will be approximately 299,010 new cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in 2024, according to the American Cancer Society.

Genetics

Advances in medulloblastoma treatment for children

Though rare, medulloblastoma is the most common cancerous brain tumor in children. These tumors begin in the lower back part of the brain called the cerebellum, which is important for balance, coordination and movement. Medulloblastomas ...

page 1 from 40

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy (also radiotherapy or radiation oncology, sometimes abbreviated to XRT) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). Radiotherapy may be used for curative or adjuvant cancer treatment. It is used as palliative treatment (where cure is not possible and the aim is for local disease control or symptomatic relief) or as therapeutic treatment (where the therapy has survival benefit and it can be curative). Total body irradiation (TBI) is a radiotherapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant. Radiotherapy has several applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, severe thyroid eye disease, pterygium, pigmented villonodular synovitis, prevention of keloid scar growth, and prevention of heterotopic ossification. The use of radiotherapy in non-malignant conditions is limited partly by worries about the risk of radiation-induced cancers.

Radiotherapy is used for the treatment of malignant tumors (cancer), and may be used as the primary therapy. It is also common to combine radiotherapy with surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy or some mixture of the three. Most common cancer types can be treated with radiotherapy in some way. The precise treatment intent (curative, adjuvant, neoadjuvant, therapeutic, or palliative) will depend on the tumour type, location, and stage, as well as the general health of the patient.

Radiation therapy is commonly applied to the cancerous tumour. The radiation fields may also include the draining lymph nodes if they are clinically or radiologically involved with tumour, or if there is thought to be a risk of subclinical malignant spread. It is necessary to include a margin of normal tissue around the tumour to allow for uncertainties in daily set-up and internal tumor motion. These uncertainties can be caused by internal movement (for example, respiration and bladder filling) and movement of external skin marks relative to the tumour position.

To spare normal tissues (such as skin or organs which radiation must pass through in order to treat the tumour), shaped radiation beams are aimed from several angles of exposure to intersect at the tumour, providing a much larger absorbed dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA