Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Why are some viruses harmless and others deadly?

Viruses outnumber humans by about 400 trillion to one, and yet pandemics are rare. Why? Why do a few viruses inflict so much damage, when the vast majority are harmless or even helpful?

Genetics

New neural network for more accurate DNA editing

Russian bioinformaticians have proposed a new neural network architecture capable of evaluating how well a guide RNA has been chosen for a gene editing experiment. Their approach will facilitate more efficient DNA modification ...

Neuroscience

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: The role of the circular RNA

A group of researchers from Sapienza University of Rome and the University of Perugia, in collaboration with the Italian Institute of Technology (IIT) has published a study which sheds light on a new form of RNA and its involvement ...

Vaccination

EU agency to decide on Novavax Covid jab next week

The EU's drug regulator said on Thursday it would decide whether the Novavax coronavirus jab will become the fifth vaccine approved for the bloc at a meeting next Monday.

HIV & AIDS

Study shows how HIV copies itself in the body

HIV replication in the human body requires that specific viral RNAs be packaged into progeny virus particles. A new study has found how a small difference in the RNA sequence can allow the viral RNA to be packaged for replication, ...

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a biologically important type of molecule that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. RNA is very similar to DNA, but differs in a few important structural details: in the cell, RNA is usually single-stranded, while DNA is usually double-stranded; RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA contains deoxyribose (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom); and RNA has the base uracil rather than thymine that is present in DNA.

RNA is transcribed from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases and is generally further processed by other enzymes. RNA is central to the synthesis of proteins. Here, a type of RNA called messenger RNA carries information from DNA to structures called ribosomes. These ribosomes are made from proteins and ribosomal RNAs, which come together to form a molecular machine that can read messenger RNAs and translate the information they carry into proteins. There are many RNAs with other roles – in particular regulating which genes are expressed, but also as the genomes of most viruses.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA