Oncology & Cancer

Scientists find new mechanism of cancer formation

A team of scientists at the National University of Singapore (NUS), led by Dr. Polly Leilei Chen from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at NUS, has discovered a previously unknown ...

Medical research

New therapeutic approaches for SARS-CoV-2

Medicine has two things to offer when viral pandemics hit: vaccines and therapeutics. While it is hard to undervalue the noble goal of rapidly developing and rolling out safe vaccines that effectively reduce disease severity, ...

Medical research

Why remdesivir does not fully stop the coronavirus

Remdesivir is the first drug against COVID-19 to be conditionally approved in Europe and the United States. The drug is designed to suppress the rapid replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in human cells by blocking the viral ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

A simplified COVID-19 diagnostic method to ramp up widespread testing

To properly monitor and help curb the spread of COVID-19, several millions of diagnostic tests are required daily in just the United States alone. There is still a widespread lack of COVID-19 testing in the U.S. and many ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Scientists identify 'immune cop' that detects SARS-CoV-2

Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have identified the sensor in human lungs that detects SARS-CoV-2 and signals that it's time to mount an antiviral response. The study, published today in Cell ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

What happens when the coronavirus mutates?

New mutations to the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 are emerging, including a more-infectious variant first found in the United Kingdom, even as vaccines containing bits of viral genetic material are beginning distribution. ...

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a biologically important type of molecule that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. RNA is very similar to DNA, but differs in a few important structural details: in the cell, RNA is usually single-stranded, while DNA is usually double-stranded; RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA contains deoxyribose (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom); and RNA has the base uracil rather than thymine that is present in DNA.

RNA is transcribed from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases and is generally further processed by other enzymes. RNA is central to the synthesis of proteins. Here, a type of RNA called messenger RNA carries information from DNA to structures called ribosomes. These ribosomes are made from proteins and ribosomal RNAs, which come together to form a molecular machine that can read messenger RNAs and translate the information they carry into proteins. There are many RNAs with other roles – in particular regulating which genes are expressed, but also as the genomes of most viruses.

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