Parkinson's & Movement disorders

Parkinson's database gets massive dose of RNA

A team at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, in collaboration with The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research (MJFF), has just added a crucial new element—RNA sequencing data—to its robust study of Parkinson's ...

Oncology & Cancer

Researchers identify subtypes of squamous cell lung cancer

Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) being one of the common types. Despite improved knowledge of the molecular alterations in SCC, little ...

Medical research

Uncovering secrets of bone marrow cells and how they differentiate

Bone marrow contains biological factories, which pump out billions of new blood cells daily. The non-blood cells that maintain this production also have the potential to produce bone, fat and cartilage. This output all starts ...

Genetics

A new framework to study congenital heart defects

Each year, 9 months of dreams and anticipation shared by millions of parents-to-be turn to despair and fright when learning their child is born with a birth defect; an often-devastating event affecting one out of 20 children ...

HIV & AIDS

Scientists pinpoint new mechanism that impacts HIV infection

A team of scientists led by Texas Biomed's Assistant Professor Smita Kulkarni, Ph.D. and Mary Carrington, Ph.D., at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, published results of a study that pinpointed a long ...

Genetics

Researchers report the function of reverse-twisting DNA

Normally, the two strands of the DNA double helix wind around each other in a right-handed spiral. However, there is another conformation called Z-DNA in which the strands twist to the left. The function of Z-DNA has remained ...

HIV & AIDS

HIV-infected cells persist in CSF in individuals on long-term ART

(HealthDay)—About half of HIV-positive individuals on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) have HIV-infected cells in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), according to a study published online July 15 in the Journal of Clinical ...

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a biologically important type of molecule that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. RNA is very similar to DNA, but differs in a few important structural details: in the cell, RNA is usually single-stranded, while DNA is usually double-stranded; RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA contains deoxyribose (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom); and RNA has the base uracil rather than thymine that is present in DNA.

RNA is transcribed from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases and is generally further processed by other enzymes. RNA is central to the synthesis of proteins. Here, a type of RNA called messenger RNA carries information from DNA to structures called ribosomes. These ribosomes are made from proteins and ribosomal RNAs, which come together to form a molecular machine that can read messenger RNAs and translate the information they carry into proteins. There are many RNAs with other roles – in particular regulating which genes are expressed, but also as the genomes of most viruses.

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