Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Pandemic planning: Lessons from the 'White Plague'

Neighbors singing from balconies above empty Spanish streets, apartment windows filled with people clapping for carers in the UK, a man running a marathon in his living room in China—people living in small homes became ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

France restores mask rule in south as COVID cases soar

French authorities said Friday that face masks will again be required in all public spaces indoors and out in a southern region bordering Spain, after COVID infections soared this week because of the more infectious Delta ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Dutch leader says easing lockdown was 'error of judgment'

The Dutch leader apologized Monday for what he called "an error of judgment" in relaxing the Netherlands' coronavirus lockdown, a move that has led to a sharp surge in infections.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

How inequality explains the high impact of COVID-19 in the U.K.

Researchers attempting to explain why the UK has experienced one of the highest COVID-19 mortality rates globally have repeatedly pointed to inequality as one of the root causes. A recent report from UCL on the effect of ...

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Space

Space is the boundless, three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of the boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. In mathematics spaces with different numbers of dimensions and with different underlying structures can be examined. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamental importance to an understanding of the universe although disagreement continues between philosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework.

Many of the philosophical questions arose in the 17th century, during the early development of classical mechanics. In Isaac Newton's view, space was absolute - in the sense that it existed permanently and independently of whether there were any matter in the space. Other natural philosophers, notably Gottfried Leibniz, thought instead that space was a collection of relations between objects, given by their distance and direction from one another. In the 18th century, Immanuel Kant described space and time as elements of a systematic framework which humans use to structure their experience.

In the 19th and 20th centuries mathematicians began to examine non-Euclidean geometries, in which space can be said to be curved, rather than flat. According to Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, space around gravitational fields deviates from Euclidean space. Experimental tests of general relativity have confirmed that non-Euclidean space provides a better model for explaining the existing laws of mechanics and optics.

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