News tagged with statistical model

Oncology & Cancer

Artificial intelligence predicts radiation therapy side effects for patients with head and neck cancers

For the first time, a sophisticated computer model has been shown to accurately predict two of the most challenging side effects associated with radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. This precision oncology approach ...

Diabetes

Patients with high blood sugar variability much more likely to die than those with stable visit-to-visit readings

New research presented at this year's Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Barcelona, Spain (16-20 Sept) shows that patients with the highest variability in their blood sugar control ...

Health

Team finds universal background checks lower homicide rates

First-ever side-by-side comparison of state gun laws finds states with universal background checks for all gun sales had homicide rates 15 percent lower than states without such laws.

Health

Stopwatch set for milestone marathon in 2032

By estimating a statistical model for male and female marathon world record progressions, Dr. Angus also found that 1:58.05 is likely the fastest time that any living human being will be able to run this distance.

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Statistical model

A statistical model is a set of mathematical equations which describe the behavior of an object of study in terms of random variables and their associated probability distributions. If the model has only one equation it is called a single-equation model, whereas if it has more than one equation, it is known as a multiple-equation model.

In mathematical terms, a statistical model is frequently thought of as a pair (Y,P) where Y is the set of possible observations and P the set of possible probability distributions on Y. It is assumed that there is a distinct element of P which generates the observed data. Statistical inference enables us to make statements about which element(s) of this set are likely to be the true one.

Three notions are sufficient to describe all statistical models.

One of the most basic models is the simple linear regression model which assumes a relationship between two random variables Y and X. For instance, one may want to linearly explain child mortality in a given country by its GDP. This is a statistical model because the relationship need not to be perfect and the model includes a disturbance term which accounts for other effects on child mortality other than GDP.

As a second example, Bayes theorem in its raw form may be intractable, but assuming a general model H allows it to become

which may be easier. Models can also be compared using measures such as Bayes factors or mean square error.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA